Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai <p>Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia (JAI) is a scientific journal publishes empirical research and recent science development in aquaculture. JAI is published twice a year in January and July since 2002 by the Indonesian Society of Scientific Aquaculture (ISSA) in association with the Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University. JAI accepts manuscripts written in English and in Bahasa (Indonesian). JAI only processes submitted original script related to aquaculture and not being published by other publishers. JAI has been registered in some indexing tools like Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Indonesian BASE, Publication Index (IPI), Google Scholar, Portal Garuda, Mendeley, SINTA, and IPB repository.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>p-ISSN <a href="http://u.lipi.go.id/1180429182" target="_blank" rel="noopener">1412-5269</a>&nbsp; /&nbsp; e-ISSN <a href="http://u.lipi.go.id/1385091088" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2354-6700</a></p> en-US <p><span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span></p><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their <a title="Click to Continue &gt; by trivia games" href="/index.php/jai/about/submissions#onlineSubmissions">work online<img src="http://cdncache-a.akamaihd.net/items/it/img/arrow-10x10.png" alt="" /></a> (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> akuakultur.indonesia@gmail.com (Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zairin Junior) akuakultur.indonesia@gmail.com (Fitratunisa) Wed, 15 Jan 2020 07:01:49 +0700 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Characterization of fermentation liquid from mangrove leaves Avicennia marina and its inhibitory potential for bacterium causing ice-ice disease https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/29256 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Fermentation liquid from mangrove leaves <em>Avicennia marina</em> contains microorganisms, nutrients, and secondary metabolites. This study aimed to identify bacteria and the compounds in fermentation liquid of mangrove leaves <em>A. marina</em> and measured their inhibitory capacity against pathogenic bacteria <em>Stenotrophomonas maltophilia</em> which causes ice-ice disease in seaweed. Molecular analysis which aimed the 16S rRNA gene showed that the bacteria in fermentation liquid consisted of eight types of <em>Bacillus</em>, <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> MSAR-01, <em>Bacillus megaterium</em> MSAR-02, <em>Bacillus firmus</em> MSAR-03, <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> MSAR-04, <em>Bacillus subterranerus</em> MSAR-05, <em>Bacillus vietnamensis</em> MSAR-06, <em>Bacillus</em> sp. MSAR-07,<em> Bacillus circulans</em> MSAR-08, with the best inhibitory power indicated by <em>B. subtilis</em> MSAR-01, <em>B. vietnamensis</em> MSAR-06, and <em>Bacillus</em> sp. MSAR-07. The administration of lactic acid, bacteriocin, total fermentation liquid, and supernatant as much as 15 mL produce inhibition to <em>S. maltophilia</em> indicated better result &nbsp;than using one or a combination of several types of bacterial isolates. The inhibition of single bacterial enriched fermentation and supernatant liquids was better than bacterial combination enrichment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: <em>Avicennia marina</em>, fermentation, ice-ice, mangrove</p> Samsu Adi Rahman, Sukenda, Widanarni, Alimuddin, Julie Ekasari Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/29256 Fri, 24 Jan 2020 02:17:15 +0700 Reproductive and growth performances in female giant freshwater prawn following inhibition of gonadal maturation using dopamine and medroxyprogesterone hormone https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/29710 <p><strong>A</strong><strong>BSTRACT</strong></p> <p>One of the main problem in giant river prawn (GFP) culture is early gonadal maturation in female resulting a reduced growth performance. This problem cause economic losses. When GFP at gonadal maturation, somatic growth will be inhibited because energy is used for reproduction. A factorial experimental design using two factors, namely dopamine and medroxyprogesterone, with each factor consist of three levels was applied. Three dopamine levels were 0, 10-5 mol/shrimp, and 10-10 mol/shrimp, while the medroxyprogesterone levels were 0, 75 mg/1.5 mL/bodyweight, and 150 mg/3 mL/bodyweight with a density 15 individual/tank. The utilization of dopamine and medroxyprogesterone in GFP (initial bodyweight : 11.27 ± 0.97 g) through injection at the third periopod was done three times at week 0, 2nd, and 4th with two weeks interval. The results showed that hormone inhibitor treatments affected both growth and reproductive performances in female GFP. The treated individuals showed a lower gonadal maturity indicator values and faster growth rate than control. Gonadal maturity, as shown by gonad histology, in all treatments were lower (previtelogenic and vitellogenic stages) than that in control which is in mature stage. Estradiol concentration premix dopamine 10-10 mol/shrimp and medroxyprogesterone 150 mg/3 mL/bodyweight treatments are lower than control. In conclusion, dopamine and medroxyprogesterone administration could suppres GSI and gonad development, and also increase growth rate.</p> <p>Keywords: Macrobrachium rosenbergii, dopamine, medroxyprogesterone, gonad development, growth.</p> Megawati Wijaya, Agus Oman Sudrajat, Imron Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/29710 Tue, 18 Feb 2020 07:26:15 +0700 Eukaryote microbes potential for bioflocs in the swamp aquaculture https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/30277 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Eucaryote microbes have an important role in forming bioflocs in the brackishwater aquaculture ponds.&nbsp; Bioflocs become potential live feed for milkfish or crustacea. This study aimed to identify the potential of eukaryotic microbes in the brackishwater aquaculture as the biofloc candidates potential development. This study was done through the water quality assessment and potential indigenous microbes isolation approach. Sampling was retrieved from the water subcomposite and sediment on each intertidal inlet and outlet. The water quality of brackishwater pond and intertidal swamp tended to lack of nutrient as containing inoptimal dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH, and ammonia content for the milkfish culture. Therefore, liming and fertilizing should be done to enrich the indigenous microbes. Eucaryote microbe isolated from the enrichment media was the aquatic fungi (multicellular and unicellular fungi) and microalgae (bacillariophyta, chlorophyta, and cyanophyta). Fungi and yeast formed a floculation with microalgae. This form will become a biofloc candidate as a live feed and water quality controller for the development of brackishwater aquaculture in the swamp area.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords:&nbsp; eucaryote microbes, biofloc, aquaculture, pond, brackish water swamp</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>ABSTRAK</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Mikrob eukariot berperan penting dalam pembentukan bioflok di tambak budidaya pada lahan rawa payau. &nbsp;Bioflok menjadi pakan alami untuk budidaya ikan bandeng atau udang. Tujuan riset ini adalah mengidentifikasi mikrob eukariot rawa payau potensial untuk pengembangan kandidat bioflok di akuakultur rawa payau.&nbsp; Riset ini dilakukan dengan pendekatan kualitas air serta isolasi mikrob <em>indigenous </em>tambak dan rawa pasang surut untuk mendapatkan isolat mikrob potensial sebagai kandidat pembentuk bioflok. Sampling dilakukan secara subkomposit pada air dan sedimen di setiap <em>inlet</em> dan <em>outlet</em> pasang surut. Kualitas air tambak dan rawa pasang surut menunjukkan kondisi oksigen terlarut, salinitas, pH, dan amonia berada di luar batas optimum budidaya ikan bandeng, sehingga perlu dilakukan pengapuran dan pemupukan untuk memperbanyak mikrob <em>indigenous-</em>nya. Isolasi mikrob eukariot dari media pengayaan diperoleh jenis fungi akuatik yang multiseluler dan uniseluler, sedangkan mikroalga yang diperoleh yaitu dari golongan Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, dan Cyanophyta. Fungi yang dapat membentuk hifa dapat merangkai mikroalga dan khamir untuk membentuk flok. Susunan ini diharapkan dapat menjadi bahan bioflok yang berguna sebagai pengendali kualitas air sekaligus pakan alami bagi pengembangan budidaya di lahan rawa payau.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Kata kunci:&nbsp; mikrob eukariot, bioflok, budidaya, tambak, rawa payau</p> Marini Wijayanti, Tanbiyaskur, Dade Jubaedah, Ade Bayu Saputra, Karta Sari Genti, Agustina, Nabila Saraswati, Siti Yuliani, Hary Widjajanti Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/30277 Tue, 07 Apr 2020 10:36:07 +0700 Economic feasibility study of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp farming: nanobubble investment in increasing harvest productivity https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/29645 <p>This study aimed to evaluate the economic feasibility of <em>Litopenaeus vannamei</em> shrimp reared at 400 shrimp/m<sup>2</sup> in 56 days of culture. The experimental design was set in an 800 m<sup>2</sup> HDPE pond installed with nanobubble and non-nanobubble. Shrimp survival and total harvest in nanobubble treatment was increased to 92% and 2,255 kg, respectively. Economic parameters calculated in this study were Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Payback Period (PP), Break Even Point (BEP), Benefit Cost Ratio (B/C Ratio), and Sensitivity Analysis (SA). The total investment required to run this farming practice is IDR 182,887,700. Total revenue per cycle is estimated at IDR 157,850,000 with the selling price of IDR 70,000/kg of shrimp. The estimated PP is 4 cycles, with an NPV of IDR 172,329,247 projected in 10 cycles. IRR is estimated at 18% and BEP is reached after 7,058 kg production of shrimp. B/C Ratio is estimated to be 1.26 and SA showed that productivity is the most affecting parameters in the present analysis. Based on the economic study, vannamei shrimp farming associated with nanobubble system is feasible to be realized.</p> Syifa Mauladani, Asri Ifani Rahmawati, Muhammad Fahrurrozi Absirin, Rizki Nugraha Saputra, Aprian Fajar Pratama, Arief Hidayatullah, Agus Dwiarto, Ahmad Syarif, Hardi Junaedi, Dedi Cahyadi, Henry Kasman Hadi Saputra, Wendy Tri Prabowo, Ujang Komarudin Asdani Kartamiharja, Alfian Noviyanto, Nurul Taufiqu Rochman Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/29645 Wed, 15 Apr 2020 01:25:27 +0700 Isolation, identification, and pathogenicity tests of pathogenic bacterial associated with black body syndrome in white barramundi Lates calcarifer B. https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/30656 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong><br>This study aimed to obtain the pathogenicity of isolated bacteria from maribund barramundi <em>Lates calcarifer</em> with <br>black body syndrome (BBS). Moribund barramundi was collected from the Center for Mariculture Development <br>(BBPBL), Lampung Province. Five of pathogenic bacteria were found, i.e. <em>Pseudomonas stutzeri</em> L01, <em>Vibrio</em><br><em>harveyi</em>, <em>Bacillus cereus</em>, <em>Salinococcus roseus</em>, and <em>Pseudomonas stutzeri</em> L02. The bacteria were tested for LD50 <br>to obtain two types of high virulent bacteria to be used for the pathogenicity test. <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01 and <em>V. harveyi</em> were <br>the most virulent bacteria with a bacterial density of 107 CFU/mL. Both bacteria were used for pathogenicity test <br>with three treatments: injection of <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01, <em>V. harveyi</em>, mix <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01 and <em>V. harveyi</em>, and phosphatebuffered saline as control. Clinical symptoms showed a blackened body, bleeding under the belly, and inactive. <br>Mortality of fish injected with <em>P. stutzeri </em>L01, <em>V. harveyi </em>and mix <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01 and <em>V. harveyi</em> was 53.33%, <br>55.00%, and 58.33%, respectively. Erythrocyte and hemoglobin in all treatments were not significantly different <br>(P&gt;0.05). However, there was significantly different in the total leukocytes of mixed <em>P. stutzeri </em>and <em>V. harveyi</em><br>treatment (P&lt;0.05). In conclusion, <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01, <em>V. harveyi</em> and mix of them resulted in black body syndrome <br>(BBS) disease. Coinfection of <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01 and <em>V. harveyi</em> produce higher mortality than single infection.<br>Keywords: barramundi, black body syndrome, histopathology, pathogenicity<br><strong>ABSTRAK</strong><br>Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan patogenisitas bakteri dari ikan kakap putih <em>L. calcarifer</em> yang memiliki <br>gejala <em>black body syndrome</em> (BBS). Ikan diambil dari Balai Besar Pengembangan Budidaya Laut (BBPBL), <br>Lampung. Lima jenis bakteri patogen ditemukan, yaitu <em>Pseudomonas stutzeri</em> L01, <em>Vibrio harveyi</em>, <em>Bacillus cereus</em>, <br><em>Salinococcus roseus</em>, dan <em>Pseudomonas stutzeri</em> L02. Bakteri diuji LD50 untuk mendapatkan dua jenis bakteri <br>virulen tinggi yang akan digunakan untuk uji patogenisitas. <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01 dan <em>V. harveyi</em> adalah bakteri paling <br>virulen dengan kepadatan bakteri 107 CFU/mL. Uji patogenisitas dengan tiga perlakuan: injeksi <em>P. stutzeri </em>L01, <br><em>V. harveyi</em>, campuran <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01 dan <em>V. harveyi</em>, serta <em>phosphate-buffered saline</em> sebagai kontrol. Gejala klinis <br>menunjukkan tubuh menghitam, perdarahan di bawah perut, dan pergerakan tidak aktif. Mortalitas ikan yang <br>disuntik dengan <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01, <em>V. harveyi </em>dan campuran <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01 dan <em>V. harveyi</em> masing-masing sebesar <br>53,33%, 55,00%, dan 58,33%. Eritrosit dan hemoglobin pada semua perlakuan tidak berbeda nyata (P&gt;0,05). <br>Namun, ada perbedaan yang signifikan dalam total leukosit perlakuan campuran <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01 dan <em>V. harveyi</em><br>(P&lt;0,05). <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01, <em>V. harveyi</em> dan campuran <em>P. stutzeri</em> L01, <em>V. harveyi </em>dapat menyebabkan <em>black body</em><br><em>syndrome</em> (BBS). Koinfeksi <em>P. stutzeri </em>L01 dan <em>V. harveyi </em>menghasilkan mortalitas lebih tinggi daripada infeksi <br>tunggal.<br>Kata kunci: barramundi, <em>black body syndrome</em>, histopatologi, patogenisitas</p> Akmal Izwar, Sri Nuryati, Rahman, Rini Purnomowati Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/30656 Tue, 05 May 2020 10:41:08 +0700 Growth performance and immune response of catfish Clarias sp. given probiotics Bacillus megaterium PTB 1.4 and Pediococcus pentosaceus E2211 https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/30457 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS) in catfish can be done by improving the immune responses through probiotic administration. Co-administering probiotics producing digestive enzymes are expected to have an impact on fish growth. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectivity of probiotics <em>B. megaterium</em> PTB 1.4 and <em>P. pentosaceus </em>E2211 to improve the growth performance and immune response of catfish infected by <em>Aeromonas hydrophila</em>. Catfish with the initial body weight of 7.36 ± 0.21 g were reared in a pond. This study was conducted with five treatments, i. e. K- (without probiotic addition and <em>A. hydrophila</em> injection), K+ (no probiotic addition with <em>A. hydrophila</em> injection), Bm (<em>B. megaterium</em> PTB 1.4 addition and <em>A. hydrophila</em> injection), Pp (<em>P. pentosaceus</em> E2211 addition and <em>A. hydrophila</em> injection), and Bm+Pp (<em>B. megaterium</em>&nbsp; PTB 1.4 addition and <em>P. pentosaceus</em> E2211 and <em>A. hydrophila</em> injection). The study results showed that Bm, Pp, and Bm+Pp treatments were able to improve the growth performance of catfish including digestive enzyme activity, daily growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and final biomass with the best results was Bm+Pp treatment. The immune response of catfish before and after the challenge test showed better survival rate, higher total leukocytes, phagocytic activity, respiratory burst, and lysozyme activity on Bm, Pp, and Bm+Pp treatment (P&lt;0.05) than the control treatment. In conclusion, the combination of probiotics <em>B. megaterium</em> PTB 1.4 and <em>P. pentosaceus</em> E2211 in feed synergistically improved the growth performance and immune response on catfish against <em>A. hydrophila</em> infection.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: <em>Aeromonas hydrophila</em>, catfish, growth performance, immune response, probiotics</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>ABSTRAK</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em>Motile aeromonad septicaemia</em> (MAS) pada ikan lele dapat dikendalikan melalui respons imun inang dengan pemberian probiotik. Pemberian bersama probiotik penghasil enzim pencernaan diharapkan dapat berdampak pada pertumbuhan ikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi efektivitas pemberian probiotik <em>B. megaterium</em> PTB 1.4 dan <em>P. pentosaceus</em> E2211 terhadap kinerja pertumbuhan dan respons imun ikan lele terhadap infeksi <em>A. hydrophila</em>. Ikan lele dengan bobot 7.36 ± 0.21 g dipelihara pada kolam beton yang diberi waring. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan lima perlakuan, yaitu: K- (tanpa probiotik dan tanpa diinjeksi <em>A. hydrophila</em>), K+ (tanpa probiotik dan diinjeksi <em>A. hydrophila</em>), Bm (diberi <em>B. megaterium</em> PTB 1.4 dan diinjeksi <em>A. hydrophila</em>), Pp (diberi <em>P. pentosaceus</em> E2211 dan diinjeksi <em>A. hydrophila</em>), dan Bm+Pp (diberi <em>B. megaterium </em>PTB 1.4 dan <em>P. pentosaceus</em> E2211 dan diinjeksi <em>A. hydrophila</em>). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan Bm, Pp, dan Bm+Pp mampu meningkatkan pertumbuhan ikan lele. Aktivitas enzim pencernaan, laju pertumbuhan harian, rasio konversi pakan, dan biomassa panen dengan hasil terbaik yaitu perlakuan Bm+Pp. Respons imun ikan lele dengan kombinasi probiotik <em>B. megaterium</em> PTB 1.4 dan <em>P. pentosaceus</em> E2211 mampu meningkatkan sintasan, total leukosit, aktivitas fagositosis, <em>respiratory burst</em>, dan aktivitas lisozim, baik pada sebelum dan setelah uji tantang. Pemberian kombinasi probiotik <em>B. megaterium</em> PTB 1.4 dan <em>P. pentosaceus</em> E2211 pada pakan mampu bekerja sinergis dalam meningkatkan kinerja pertumbuhan dan respons imun ikan lele terhadap infeksi <em>A. hydrophila</em>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Kata kunci: <em>A. hydrophila</em>, ikan lele, kinerja pertumbuhan, probiotik, respons imun</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Subhan Hamka, Anja Meryandini, Widanarni Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/30457 Tue, 23 Jun 2020 06:12:50 +0700 Hormonal induction maturation of silver pompano Trachinotus blochii https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/31794 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>This study was aimed to acquire the most suitable hormone treatment to induce gonad maturation of silver pompano <em>Trachinotus blochii</em>. This study used a completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications, i.e NaCl 90% (control) (0.5 mL/kg), hCG (20 IU/kg fish body weight), PMSG (20 IU/kg fish body weight), and PG600 (20 IU/kg fish body weight). Parameters measured were gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonad maturity level (TKG), gonad histology, and absolute growth. The best result was PG600 treatment with 0.12% gonadosomatic index, 2.29% hepatosomatic index, TKG IV, and 85 g absolute growth for four weeks. This study concludes that the most suitable hormone to induce gonad maturation of silver pompano <em>Trachinotus blochii</em> is PG600 with 20 IU/kg body weight, which effectively affects GSI, HSI, and absolute growth of silver pompano.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: hCG, maturation, PG600, PMSG, silver pompano.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>ABSTRAK</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan hormon yang terbaik untuk menginduksi maturasi gonadikan bawal bintang. Hormon yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalahkontrol NaCl 90% (dosis 0,5 mL/kg),&nbsp; hCG(dosis 20 IU/kg bobot tubuh ikan), PMSG (dosis 20 IU/kg bobot tubuh ikan), dan PG600 (dosis 20 IU/kg bobot tubuh ikan). Parameter yang diamati adalah indeks gonadosomatik (GSI), indeks hepatosomatik (HSI), tingkat kematangan gonad (TKG), histologi gonad, dan pertumbuhan bobot mutlak. Hasil terbaik adalah perlakuan PG600 dengan gonadosomatik indeks (0,12%), hepatosomatik indeks (2,29%), TKG IV,dan pertumbuhan mutlak (85 g) selama empat minggu. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah perlakuan hormone yang berpotensi menginduksi maturasi gonad ikan bawal bintang adalah hormon PG600 dengan dosis 20 IU/kg bobot tubuh dikarenakan adanya pengaruh nyata tehadap parameter GSI, HSI dan pertumbuhan mutlak ikan bawal bintang.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Kata kunci: ikan bawal bintang, hCG, PMSG, PG600, maturasi.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Wiwin Kusuma Atmaja Putra, Tengku Said Raza’i Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://ilkom.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/31794 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 12:08:33 +0700