Community Consumption of Traditional Medicine and Health Supplements During the Coronavirus Disease-2019 Pandemic

Community Consumption of Traditional Medicine and Health Supplements During the Coronavirus Disease-2019 Pandemic

  • Hilyatul Fadliyah Department of Health Policy and Administration, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia
  • Atik Nurwahyuni Department of Health Policy and Administration, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia
  • Faradiba Graduate Student of Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Keywords: consumer behaviour, consumer decision model, ccoronavirus disease-2019, health supplements, traditional medicine


Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) encourages the community to prioritize basic and personal health needs. This study aimed to explore the consumer behaviour of traditional medicine and health supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia using the Consumer Decision Model approach. A quick online cross-sectional survey involving 215 respondents was carried out from December 23, 2020, until January 2, 2021. This study revealed that the majority of respondents consume the products as forced by the pandemic situation, and their use has increased than before the pandemic. The primary reason for consuming the product is to increase their immunity during a pandemic, and they felt more healthy after consuming it. Social media and television are the primary sources of product information. Furthermore, we found that the majority of respondents were branded product consumers. Respondents were more likely to have good behaviour based on knowledge of the products' legality, dosage, indication, instructions for use, and expiration date. This study sets appropriate consumer behaviour and performs the statistical tests only for branded product consumers. It is concluded that consumer behaviour in this study is related to product advertisement exposure and acceptance, environmental influence, and individual difference.


Accenture. (2020). How COVID-19 will permanently change consumer behaviour, fast-changing consumer behaviors influence the future of the CPG industry. April 2020. Retrieved from

Afina, S., & Retnaningsih, R. (2018). The influence of students' knowledge and attitude toward functional foods consumption behavior. Journal of Consumer Sciences, 3(1), 1-14. Doi:

Akter, S., Ashrafi, T., & Waligo, V. (2021). Changes in consumer purchasing behavior due to COVID- 19 pandemic. Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research, 3 (77), 33–46. Doi:

Bureau of Public Relations and Leadership Strategic Support of NFDA. (2019, September 8). Safe shopping with CHECK KLIK. Retrieved from

Chandrasekar, K. S., & Vinay Raj, R. (2013). Family and consumer behaviour. International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research, 2(7), 17–20. ISSN: 2319-4421.

Chung, J. E., Stoel, L., Xu, Y., & Ren, J. (2012). Predicting Chinese consumers' purchase intentions for imported soy-based dietary supplements. British Food Journal, 114(1), 143–161. Doi:

Dixit, A., Marthoenis, M., Arafat, S. M. Y., Sharma, P., & Kar, S. K. (2020). Binge watching behavior during COVID 19 pandemic: A cross-sectional, cross-national online survey. Psychiatry Research, 289, 113089. Doi:

Every-Palmer, S., Jenkins, M., Gendall, P., Hoek, J., Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Williman, J., Rapsey, C., & Stanley, J. (2020). Psychological distress, anxiety, family violence, suicidality, and wellbeing in New Zealand during the COVID-19 lockdown: A cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE, 15(11), e0241658. Doi:

Gajjar, N. B. (2013). Factors affecting consumer behavior. International Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(2), 10–15. ISSN: 2320-771X.

Ganesha, K. S. (2018). Effectiveness of advertisement on purchasing behavior of customers towards telecom product and services. BIMS International Journal of Social Science Research, July. Retrieved from

Hamishehkar, H., Ranjdoost, F., Asgharian, P., Mahmoodpoor, A., & Sanaie, S. (2016). Vitamins, are they safe? Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 6(4), 467–477. Doi:

Izazi, F., & Kusuma, A. (2020). Results of respondents public knowledge of the processing method of Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) and Kencur (Kaemferia galanga) as increased immunity during COVID-19 using the proximity of the Leximancer program concept. Journal of Pharmacy and Science, 5(2), 93–97. Doi:

Jennifer, H., & Saptutyningsih, E. (2015). Individual preference for traditional medicine in Indonesia. Journal of Economics & Development Studies, 16(1), 26–41. E-ISSN: 2541-5506.

Kardoko, H. (2020, October 22). The pharmaceutical industry revolution amid the covid-19 pandemic. Ekonomi Retrieved from

Kotler, P., & Keller, K. L. (2015). Marketing management. In Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, 13(3).

Kumar, D. D. P. (2013). The role of advertising in consumer decision making. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 14(4), 37–45. Doi:

Lakshmi, V. V., Niharika, D. A., & Lahari, G. (2017). Impact of gender on consumer purchasing behaviour. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 19(8), 33–36. Doi:

Lidyana, V. (2020, May 19). Sales of drugs and health supplements go up, National Food and Drug Agency "patrols" online shops. Retrieved from

Liu, X., Luo, W.-T., Li, Y., Li, C.-N., Hong, Z.-S., Chen, H.-L., Xiao, F., & Xia, J.-Y. (2020). Psychological status and behavior changes of the public during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9(58), 1-11. Doi:

Loxton, M., Truskett, R., Scarf, B., Sindone, L., Baldry, G., & Zhao, Y. (2020). Consumer behaviour during crises: Preliminary research on how coronavirus has manifested consumer panic buying, herd mentality, changing discretionary spending and the role of the media in influencing behaviour. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 13(8), 166. Doi:

Margraf, J., Brailovskaia, J., & Schneider, S. (2020). Behavioral measures to fight COVID-19: An 8-country study of perceived usefulness, adherence and their predictors. PLoS ONE, 15(12), 1–22. Doi:

Maulana, A. (2020, April 3). During the outbreak community need for health supplements increases. Retrieved from

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (1994). Advertising guidelines: OTC drugs, traditional medicines, medical devices, cosmetics, household health supplies and food and beverages.

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2011). Rational drug use module. Directorate of Pharmaceutical Services.

Mukti, A. W. (2020). The relationship of knowledge to the behavior of using health supplements for the residents of Kebonsari Surabaya during the covid-19 pandemic. PHARMACEUTICAL: Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 1(1), 20–25. Retrieved from

Nabity-Grover, T., Cheung, C. M. K., & Thatcher, J. B. (2020). Inside out and outside in: How the COVID-19 pandemic affects self-disclosure on social media. International Journal of Information Management, 55, 102188. Doi:

National Food and Drug Agency. (2014). Guidelines for advertising of traditional medicine and health supplements. Directorate of Assessment of Traditional medicine, Food Health supplements, and Cosmetics.

Nielsen Company Indonesia. (2020a, March 19). Digital consumers show positive growth trends. Nielsen. Retrieved from

Nielsen Company Indonesia. (2020b, March 23). Covid-19 and its impact on the media consumption trend. Nielsen. Retrieved from

Nurhayati, T., & Hendar, H. (2019). Personal intrinsic religiosity and product knowledge on halal product purchase intention: Role of halal product awareness. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 11(3), 603–620. Doi:

Rizvi, R. F., Wang, Y., Nguyen, T., Vasilakes, J., Bian, J., He, Z., & Zhang, R. (2019). Analyzing social media data to understand consumer information needs on dietary supplements. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 264, 323. Doi:

Roberti, G. (2014). The influence of family socialization on consumer choices of young people. A case study of female university students. Italian Journal of Sociology of Education, 6(3), 41-69. Doi:

Ronis, M. J. J., Pedersen, K. B., & Watt, J. (2018). Adverse effects of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 58, 583–601. Doi:

Rossanty, Y., & Nasution, M. D. T. P. (2018). Information search and intentions to purchase: The role of country of origin image, product knowledge, and product involvement. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 11(4), 130-141. ISSN: 2076-9202.

Saefi, M., Fauzi, A., Kristiana, E., Adi, W. C., Muchson, M., Setiawan, M. E., Islami, N. N., Ningrum, D. E. A. F., Ikhsan, M. A., & Ramadhani, M. (2020). Survey data of COVID-19-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among indonesian undergraduate students. Data in Brief, 31, 105855. Doi:

Setianingrum, M. F., & Yuliati, L. N. (2017). Effect of Consumer Awareness of Education Material, Source of Information, and Value of Materialism on Behavior as A Smart Adolescent Consumer. Journal of Consumer Sciences, 2(2), 41-56.

Shaouf, A. A. A. (2018). Revising the Effects of Online Advertising Attributes on Consumer Processing and Response. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 10(1), 39-53. Doi:

Siahaan, S., Usia, T., Pujiati, S., Tarigan, I. U., & Murhandini, S. (2017). Knowledge , Attitude , and Practice of Communities on Selecting Safe Medicines in Three Provincies in Indonesia. Indonesian Pharmaceutical Journal, 7(2), 136–145. Doi:

Sulaeman. (2020, April 3). Vitamin C is rare due to the corona virus. Retrieved from

Sӕmundsson, K. P. (2012). Consumer trust in advertising in different media. [Dissertation]. Iceland(UK): Reykjavik University.

Tardy, A. L., Pouteau, E., Marquez, D., Yilmaz, C., & Scholey, A. (2020). Vitamins and minerals for energy, fatigue and cognition: A narrative review of the biochemical and clinical evidence. Nutrients, 12(1), 228. Doi:

Viksne, K., Salkovska, J., Gaitniece, E., & Puke, I. (2016). Comparative Analysis of Customer Behaviour Models. Proceedings on the 2016 International Conference Economic Science for Rural Development (Issue 43). Retrieved from

[WHO] World Health Organization. (2021). WHO CWHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard, Data last updated: 2021/1/17, 6:51 pm CEToronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard, Data last updated: 2021/1/17, 6:51 pm CET. Retrieved from

[WHO Europe] World Health Organization Europe. (2020). Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for infection prevention precautions. Scientific brief, July 9 2020. Retrieved from

How to Cite
Fadliyah, H., Nurwahyuni, A., & Faradiba. (2021). Community Consumption of Traditional Medicine and Health Supplements During the Coronavirus Disease-2019 Pandemic: Community Consumption of Traditional Medicine and Health Supplements During the Coronavirus Disease-2019 Pandemic. Journal of Consumer Sciences, 6(2), 92-110.