Keragaman Rhizoctonia solani Isolat Padi Varietas Ciherang, IR 64, Mekongga, dan Situ Bagendit
Diversity of Rhizoctonia solani Isolates of Rice Varieties of Ciherang, IR 64, Mekongga, and Situ Bagendit
Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the important commodities cultivated in Indonesia. One of the important diseases on rice is sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The research aimed to determine the effectiveness and anastomosis group of R. solani isolated from Ciherang, IR 64, Mekongga, and Situ Bagendit varieties and to know the molecular amplification of R. solani using universal primers and their genetic relationship based on the sequencing results. This research was conducted from October 2019 to July 2020 in Laboratory of Control Technology UGM. The diseased leaf samples were collected from paddy field in Pandak, Bantul. Rhizoctonia fungus was obtained by leaf tissue isolation and purified on potato dextrose agar. The R. solani isolates were classified based on cultural type, morphological characteristics, number of nuclei, anastomosis (AG) compatibility, and genetic diversity. Analysis of genetic diversity was carried out with PCR using universal primers ITS1 and ITS4. The results showed that the cultural and morphological characteristics of the isolates were various. The number of nuclei was ranged from 5 to 7 which belong to multinucleate type. The anastomosis groups (AG) compatibility test showed that the used 13 isolates are classified into C3 category (perfect anastomosis). DNA bands with results according to the target of 600-750 bp were derived from a PCR analysis. The sequencing results showed that 12 R. solani isolates showed a high genetic relationship with AG-1 IA tester isolates, except for CH 3 isolate.
Afrizal A, Ratih S, Nurdin M, Susilo FX. 2018. Intensitas serangan hama dan patogen pada agroekosistem hidroponik tanaman padi (Oryza sativa L.) dengan berbagai media tanam. JAT. 6(2):86–90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23960/jat.v6i2.2599.
Budiarti SW, Lukman R, Sumardiyono C, Wibowo A, Priyatmojo A. 2019. Effect of photoperiod on the cultural morphology of Rhizoctonia solani isolates of maize from Yogyakarta and Central Jawa, Indonesia. Biodiversitas. 20(7):2028–2038. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d200732.
Carling DE. 1996. Grouping in Rhizoctonia solani by hyphal anastomosis reaction. Di dalam: Sneh B, Jabaji-Hare S, Neate S, Dijst G, editor. Rhizoctonia species taxonomy, molecular biology, ecology, pathology and disease control. Dordrecht (NL): Kluwer Academic Publisher. hlm 37–47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-2901-7_3.
Debbarma M, Dutta P. 2015. Cultural and morphological variability in Rhizoctonia solani isolates of different hosts of Assam. Indian J Appl Res. 5(2):878–884.
Dutta U, Gupta S, Kalha CS, Razdan UK. 2013. Morpho-cultural and pathogenic variability among isolates of Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight in Jammu. J Mycol Plant Pathol. 43(2):210–215.
Garcia VG, Onco MAP, Susan VR. 2006. Review. Biology and systematics of the form genus Rhizoctonia. Span J Agric Res. 4(1):55–79. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2006041-178.
Gopireddy BM, Devi GU, Kumar KV, Babu TR, Naidu TCM. 2017. Cultural and morphological characterization of Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii isolates collected from different districts of Andhra Pradesh. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 6(11):3457–3469. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.611.407.
Hossain MDK, Tze OS, Nadarajah K, Jena K, Bhuiyan MDAR, Ratnam W. 2014. Identification and validation of sheath blight resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars against Rhizoctonia solani. Can J Plant Pathol. 36(4):482–490. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07060661.2014.970577.
Hyakumachi M, Priyatmojo A, Kubota M, Fukui H. 2005. New anastomosis groups, AG-T and AG-U, of binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing root and stem rot of cut-flower and miniature roses. Phytopathology. 95(7):784–792. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-95-0784.
Lal M, Kandhari J. 2009. Cultural and morphological variability in Rhizoctonia solani isolates causing sheath blight of rice. J Mycol Pantl Pathol. 39(1):77–81.
Lal M, Singh V, Kandhari J, Sharma P, Kumar V, Murti S. 2014. Diversity analysis of Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice in India. Afr J Biotechnol. 13(51):4594–4605. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB2013.13106.
Mishra PK, Gogoi R, Singh PK, Rai SN, Singode A, Kumar A, Manjunatha C. 2014. Morpho-cultural and pathogenic variability in Rhizoctonia solani isolates from rice, maize and green gram. Indian Phytopathol. 67(2):147–154.
Muis A. 2007. Pengelolaan penyakit busuk pelepah (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.) pada tanaman jagung. J Litbang Pert. 26(3):100–103.
Nadarajah K, Omar NS, Rosli MM, Tze OS. 2014. Molecular characterization and screening for sheath blight resistance using malaysian isolates of Rhizoctonia solani. Bio Med Res Int. 2014:1–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/434257.
Nuryanto B. 2017. Penyakit hawar pelepah (Rhizoctonia solani) pada padi dan taktik pengelolaannya. JPTI. 21(2):63–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.22494.
Ou SH. 1985. Rice Disease. Ed ke-2. Slough (UK): Common Wealth Mycological Institute.
Priyatmojo A, Escopalao VE, Tangonan NG, Pascual CB, Suga H, Kageyama K, Hyakumachi M. 2001. Characterization of a new subgroup of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1 (AG-1-ID), causal agent of a necrotic leaf spot on coffee. Phytopathology. 91(11):1054–1061. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2001.91.11.1054.
Rustam, Giyanto, Wiyono S, Santosa DA, Susanto S. 2011. Seleksi dan identifikasi bakteri antagonis sebagai agens pengendali hayati penyakit hawar pelepah padi. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan. 30(3):164–171.
Savary S, Willocquet L, Elazegui FA, Castilla NP, Teng PS. 2000. Rice pest constraints in tropical Asia: quantification of yield losses due to rice pests in a range of production situations. Plant Dis. 84(3):357–369. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.3.357.
Sawitri S, Saragih R, Ariyanti E. 2018. Seleksi beberapa genotipe padi sawah lokal (Oryza sativa L.) terhadap cekaman kekeringan menggunakan polyethylene glycol (PEG) pada fase perkecambahan. J Agroteknol. 9(1):23–30.
Singh J, Kumar A. 2018. Variability among isolates of Rhizoctonia solani inciting web blight of Mungbean. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 7(9):2501–2510. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.709.310.
Sunder S, Kataria HR, Satyavir, Sheoran OP. 2003. Characterization of Rhizoctonia solani associated with root/collar rots and blights. Indian Phytopath. 56(1):27–33.
Toda T, Hyakumachi M. 2006. Heterokaryon formation in Thanatephorus cucumeris anastomosis group 2-2 IV. Mycologia. 98(5):726–736. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15572536.2006.11832644.
Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.