Space Planting, Competition, and Productivity of a Seven-Year-Old Clonal Teak Plantation in the East Java Monsoon Forest Area
Tree breeding of teak results in selected clones with high growth. Intensive silviculture is required to support a large-scale clonal teak plantation. Appropriate spacing is one of the methods to increase forest plantation productivity. Research of teak clone spacing was conducted on a seven-year-old clonal teak plantation with randomized completely block design. The treatments tested in this study were four plant spacing distances, namely, 3 m × 3 m, 6 m × 2 m, 8 m × 2 m, and 10 m × 2 m. Results show that spacing had significantly different effects on diameter, height, bole height, branch angle, crown area, crown projections, volume, and competition index. However, the height growth did not exhibit any significant differences. The 10 m × 2 m spacing produced the best diameter growth, crown area, and competition index, but has a low volume per hectare and the lowest height of free branch and branch angle. Meanwhile, the 3 m × 3 m spacing will increase bole height and stand volume per hectare. This result suggests that spacing could improve the growth of teak clone but must be followed by intensification of proper maintenance to reduce branch angle and increase bole height.
Budiadi, Widiyatno, & Ishii, H. (2017). Response of a clonal teak plantation to thinning and pruning in Java, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 29, 44–53. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/44028274
[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik Ngawi. (2018). Rata-rata curah hujan tiap bulan menurut lokasi penakar di Kabupaten Ngawi 2016–2017. Retrieved from https://ngawikab.bps.go.id
Cardoso, D. J., Lacerda, A. E., Rosot M. A., Garrastazú, M. C., & Lima R. T. (2013). Inﬂuence of spacing regimes on the development of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in southern Brazil. Forest Ecology Management, 310, 761–769. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.09.021
Contreras, M. A., Affleck, D., & Chung, W. (2011). Evaluating tree competition indices as predictors of basal area increment in western Montana forests. Forest Ecology Management, 262, 1939–1949. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.08.031
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. (2013). Natural teak forests decline, while planted teak forests increase. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations.
Goh, D. K. S. (2016, February 22–26). Rationale for clonal teak plantations [Paper presentation]. Asia-Pacific Forestry Week 2016, Pampanga, Philippines. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/rap/Asia-Pacific_Forestry_Week/doc/Stream_1/ST1_25Feb_Goh_Teak.pdf
Haninec, P., Petr, M., Martin, S., Hana, H., Martin, S., Lubos, U., Milan, R., Jindr I.P., Josef, C., Katerina N., & Radek, S. (2016). Assessment of teak production characteristics using 1 m spacing in a plantation in Nicaragua. Bois Et Forets Des Tropiques, 300, 37–47. https://doi.org/10.19182/bft2016.330.a31317
Harrington, T. B., Harrington, C. A., & DeBell, D. S. (2009). Effects of planting spacing and site quality on 25-year growth and mortality relationships of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii). Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 12–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.03.039
Hegyi, F. (1974). A simulation model for managing jack-pine stands. In Fries, J. (Ed.), Growth models for tree and stand simulation. Stockholm: Royal College of Forestry.
Iddi, S., Chamshama S. A., & Malimbwi, R. E. (1996). Planting spacing in forest plantation: A review, record 63, Faculty of Forestry. Morogoro, Tanzania: Sokoine University of Agriculture.
Kollert, W., & Cherubini, L., (2012). Teak resources and market assessment 2010. FAO Planted Forests and Trees Working Paper FP/47/E. Rome. Retrieved form http://www.fao.org/3/a-an537e.pdf
Kollert, W., & Kleine, M. (Eds.) (2017). The global teak study: Analysis, evaluation and potential of teak resources. Vienna: IUFRO World Series Volume 36. Retrieved from https://www.iufro.org/uploads/media/ws36.pdf
Ling, L. T., Yap, S., Radhakrishnan, A. K., Subramaniam,T., Cheng, H. M., & Palanisamy, U. D. (2009). Standardized Mangifera indica extract is an ideal antioxidant. Food Chemistry, 113, 1154–1159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.09.004
Maleki, K., Kiviste, A., & Korjus, H. (2015). Analysis of individual tree competition effect on diameter growth of silver birch in estonia. Forest Systems, 24, e023. https://doi.org/10.5424/fs/2015242-05742
Malimbwi, A., Persson, S., Iddi, S., Chamshama, S. A. O., & Mwihomeke, S. T. (1992). Effects of spacing on yield and some wood properties of Pinus patula at Rongai, Northern Tanzania. Forest Ecology and Management, 53, 297–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(92)90048-e
Medeiros, R. A., Paiva, H. N., & D’Ávila, L. (2018). Growth and yield of teak stands at different spacing. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira Brasília, 53, 1109–1118. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-204x2018001000004
Meng, S. X., Leiffers, V. J., & Huang, S. (2007). Modelling crown volume of lodgepole pine based upon uniform stress theory. Forest Ecology and Management, 251, 174–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.06.008
[MoF] Ministry of Forestry. (2012). Statistik Kehutanan Indonesia 2011. Jakarta: Ministry of Forestry Indonesia.
Nahuel, A. Pachas, A. N. A., Sakanphet, S., Soukkhy, O., Lao, M., Savathvong, S., ..., & Dieters, M.J. (2019). Initial spacing of teak (Tectona grandis) in northern Lao PDR: Impacts on the growth of teak and companion crops. Forest Ecology and Management, 435, 77–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.12.031
Na'iem, M. (2000). Early performance of clonal tests of teak. In E. B. Hardiyanto (Ed.), Third regional seminar on teak. Potential and opportunities in marketing and trade of plantation teak: Challenge for the new millenium (pp 217–275). Faculty of Forestry Universitas Gadjah Mada.
Na’iem, M. (2012). Peningkatan produktivitas hutan berbasis silvikultur intensif (SILIN): Strategi efisiensi penggunaan kawasan hutan. In A. Nugraha (Ed.), Darurat hutan Indonesia, mewujudkan arsitektur baru kehutanan Indonesia (pp.162–183). Banten: Wana Aksara.
Ola-Adams, B. A. (1990). Influence of spacing on growth and yield of Tectona grandis L.f. and Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels (Afara). Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 2, 180–186. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/43594330
Pachas, A. N. A., Somphanh, S., Outhai, S., Maichor, L., Sianouvong, S., Jonathan, C., ..., & Mark, J. (2019). Initial spacing of teak (Tectona grandis) in Northern Lao PDR: Impacts on the growth of teak and companion crops. Forest Ecology and Management, 435, 77–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.12.031
Palanisamy, K., Gireesan, K., Nagarajan, V., & Hegde, M. (2009). Selection and clonal multiplication of superior trees of teak (Tectona grandis) and preliminary evaluation of clones. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 21, 168–174. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23616646
Perez, D., & Kanninen, M. (2003). Provisional equations for estimating total and merchantable volume of Tectona grandis trees in Costa Rica. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 13, 345–359. https://doi.org/10.1080/14728028.2003.9752470
Perez, D., & Kanninen, M. (2005). Stand growth scenarios for Tectona grandis plantations in Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management, 210, 425–441. https://doi.org/10.14214/df.1
Perhutani. (2014). Statistik Perum Perhutani 2009– 2013. Jakarta: Perum Perhutani.
Pfister, O., Wallentin, C., Nilsson, U., & Eko, P. M. (2007). Effects of wide spacing and thinning strategies on wood quality in Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in Southern Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 22, 333–343. https://doi.org/10.1080/02827580701504951
Pretzsch, H., Biber, P., Uhl, E., Dahlhausen, J., Rötzer, T., Caldentey, J., Koike, T., Con T.V., Chavanne, A., Seifert T., Toit, B.D., Farnden, C., & Pauleit. S. (2015). Crown size and growing space requirement of common tree species inurban centers, parks, and forests. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 14, 466–479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2015.04.006
Sreekanth, P. M., Balasundaran, M., Nazeem, P. A., & Suma, T. B. (2012). Genetic diversity of nine natural Tectona grandis L.f. populations of the Western Ghats in Southern India. Conservation Genetics, 13, 1409–1419. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-012-0383-5
Tanaka, N., Hamazaki, T., & Vacharangkura, T. (1998). Distribution, growth and site requirements of teak. JARQ, 32, 65–77.
Ugalde, L. A. (2013). Teak: New trends in silviculture: commercialization and wood production. Cartago: International Forestry and Agroforestry.
Vincent, G., & Harja, D. (2008). Exploring ecological significance of tree crown plasticity through three dimensional modeling. Annals of Botany, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcm189
Wehr, J. B., Blamey, F. P., Smith, T. E., & Menzies, N. W. (2016). Growth and physiological responses of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) clones to Ca, H and Al stresses in solution and acid soils. New Forests, 48, 137–152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-016-9560-6
Woodruff, D., Barbara, J. B., Gary, A. R., & William, S. (2002). Effects of stand density on the growth of young Douglas-fir trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32, 420–427. https://doi.org/10.1139/x01-213
Zahabu, E., Tumaini, R., Shabani, A., Omari, C., Said, I., & Rogers, E. (2015). Effect of spacing regimes on growth, yield, and wood properties of Tectona grandis at Longuza Forest Plantation, Tanzania. International Journal of Forestry Research, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/469760
Zanin, D. K. (2005). Feasibility of teak production for small holders in Eastern Panama [thesis]. Michigan: Forestry Michigan Technological University. Retrieved from https://www.mtu.edu/peacecorps/programs/forestry/pdfs/daniella-zanin-thesis-final.pdf
Zhou, Z., Liu, S., Liang, K., Ma, H., & Huang, G. (2017). Growth and mineral nutrient analysis of teak (Tectona grandis) grown on acidic soils in South China. Journal of Forestry Research, 28, 503–511. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-016-0324-0
Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika is an open access journal which means that all contents is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.