Produksi Kitosan dari Cangkang Rajungan (Portunus sp.) pada Suhu Ruang

The Production of Chitosan from Crab Shell (Portunus sp.) at Room Temperature

  • Dessy Atika Natalia Mahasiswa Politekni AUP Jakarta
  • Niken Dharmayanti Pascasarjana, Politeknik AUP Jakarta, Jalan AUP No.1 Pasar Minggu-Jakarta Selatan
  • Fera Roswita Dewi Politeknik Kelautan dan Perikanan Bitung, Jalan Tandurusa Aertembaga Dua Kota Bitung-Sulut
Keywords: chitosan, crab, degree of acetylation, non thermal, room temperature

Abstract

Crab shell (Portunus Sp) can be used as a raw material for chitosan which obtained by hydrolyzing chitin by using strong alkali and high temperature. The use of high temperature during the process, producing chitosan without any thermal stage can be a possible solution to reduce hazard. The study aims to produce chitosan from crab shells using non thermal method. Chitosan was made through these stages: deproteination, demineralization and deacetylation. The yielded chitosan then characterized. The results showed that the chitosan has yellowish white color, in flakes form and odorless with moisture content 11,25 – 12,93%, ash content 1,62 – 1,75%, nitrogen content 5,12 – 5,45%, lipid content 0,25 – 0,49%, viscosity 37,50 – 38,33 cPs, solubility 99,55 – 99,57% and degree of deacetylation 57,64%. In conclusion chitosan can be made with non thermal method met the commercial standards of chitosan except for the low deacetylation. Processing chitosan with non thermal methode can be applied at small crab miniplant, thus the crab shells has more economical value.

References

Angka SL, Suhartono MT. 2000. Bioteknologi Hasil Laut. Bogor (ID): PKSPL. Institut Pertanian Bogor.

[AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemist. 2005. Official Method of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical of Chemist. Virgin (US): The Association of Analytical Chemist, Inc.

Ariesta, A. 2007. Karateristik mutu dan kelarutan kitosan dari ampas silase kepala udang windu (Penaeus monodon). [Skripsi]. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.

[BSN] Badan Standardisasi Nasional. 2006. Penentuan kadar abu pada produk perikanan. SNI-01-2354.1-2006. Jakarta (ID): Badan Standardisasi Nasional.

[BSN] Badan Standardisasi Nasional. 2006. Penentuan kadar air pada produk perikanan. SNI-01-2354.2-2006. Jakarta (ID): Badan Standardisasi Nasional.

Bagheri Khoulenjani S, Taghizadeh S, Mirzadeh H. 2009. An investigation on the short term biodegradability of chitosan with various molecular weights and degrees of deacetylation. Carbohydrate Polymers. 78(2009): 773-778.

Belangi, I. 2018. Produksi dan karateristik kitosan larut air dengan metode hidrolisis asam. [Skripsi]. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Cahyono, E. 2015. Produksi glukosamin dengan metode hidrolisis bertekanan sebagai bahan penunjang kesehatan sendi. [Tesis]. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Chamidah A, Widiyanti CH, Fabiyani NN. 2016. Pemanfaatan chitosan larut air sebagai antiseptik hand sanitizer. Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada. 21(1): 9-16

[EFSA] European Food Safety Authority. 2010. Scientific opinion on the safety of chitin-glucan as a novel food ingredient. European Food Safety Authority. 8(7): 1-17.

Fadli A, Drastinawati, Alexander O, Huda F. 2015. Pengaruh rasio massa kitin/naoh dan waktu reaksi terhadap karakteristik kitosan yang disintesis dari limbah industri udang kering. Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia. 18(2): 61-67.

Fawzya YN, Rina N, Singgih W. 2008. Pengaruh deasetilasi dan alkalinasi terhadap karakteristik karboksimetil kitosan. Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada. 10(1): 64-75.

Gintu AR, Soetjipto H, Cahyanti MN. 2017. Karakterisasi dan sifat fisikokimia kitosan dari kulit udang. Seminar Nasional Kimia dan Pendidikan Kimia IX (SN-KPK IX).

Hong H, No K, Meyers SP, Lee KS. 1989. Isolation and characterization of chitin from crawfish shell waste. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 37(3): 575-579.

Lalenoh BA, Cahyono E. 2018. Karakterisasi kitosan dari limbah rajungan (Portunus pelagicus). Jurnal Ilmiah Tindalung. 4(1): 30-33.

Putra MMP, Putra P, Husni A. 2013. Pengaruh suhu eterifikasi pada proses pembuatan karboksil metil kitosan terhadap sifat kelarutannya. Seminar Nasional Masyarakat Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia V.

Nadia LMH, Huli LO, Nadia LAR. 2018. Pembuatan dan karakterisasi kitosan dari cangkang rajungan (Portunus pelagicus) asal Sulawesi Tenggara. Jurnal Fish Protech. 1(2): 77-84.

Rahayu LH, Purnavita S. 2007. Optimasi pembuatan kitosan dari kitin limbah cangkang rajungan (Portunus pelagicus) untuk adsorben ion logam merkuri. Reaktor. 11(1): 45-49.

Rahman, M A. 2012. Kitosan sebagai bahan antibakteri alternatif dalam formulasi gel pembersih tangan (hand sanitizer). [Skripsi]. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Rochima E. 2007. Karateristik kitin dan kitosan asal limbah rajungan cirebon. Buletin Teknologi Hasil Perikanan. X(1): 9-22.

Rochima E. 2014. Study of utilization of crabs processing wastes and its application for chitosan-based healthy drink. Jurnal Akuatika. 5(1): 71-82.

Rohyami Y, Istiningrum RB. 2013. Preparation of chitin, study of physicochemical properties and biopesticide activities. Eksakta Journal of Sciences and Data Analysis. 13(2): 49-55.

Setha B, Rumata F, Silaban BB. 2019. Karakteristik kitosan dari kulit udang vaname dengan menggunakan suhu dan waktu yang berbeda dalam proses deasetilasi. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia. 22(3): 498-507.

Sofia I, Murdiningsih H, Yanti N. 2016. Pembuatan dan kajian sifar-sifat fisikokimia, mekanikal, dan fungsional edible film dari kitosan udang windu. Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan. 5(2): 54- 60.

Sudianto, Suseno SH, Suptijah P. 2020. Optimasi produksi kitosan larut air menggunakan metode hidrolisis bertekanan. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia. 23(3): 441-446.

Suptijah P, Salamah E, Sumaryanto H, Purwaningsih S, Santoso J. 1992. Pengaruh berbagai isolasi khitin kulit udang terhadap mutunya. Laporan Penelitian Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Perikanan. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Suptijah P. 2006. Deskripsi karakterisasi fungsional dan aplikasi kitin dan kitosan. Di Dalam Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kitin Kitosan. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Tanasale MFJDP, Telussa I, Sekewael SJ, Kakerissa L. 2016. Extraction and characterization of chitosan from windu shrimp shell (Penaeus monodon) and depolymerization chitosan process with hydrogen peroxide based on heating temperature variations. Indonesian Journal of Chemical Research. 3(2): 308-316.

Walke S, Srivastava G, Nikalje M, Doshi J, Kumar R, Ravetkar S, Doshi P. 2014. Physicochemical and functional characterization of chitosan prepared from shrimp shells and investigation of its antibacterial, antioxidant and tetanus toxoid entrapment efficiency. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 26(2): 215-225.

Yusharani MS, Stenley, Harmami, Ulfin I, Ni’mah YL. 2019. Synthesis of water-soluble chitosan from squid pens waste as raw material for capsule shell: temperature deacetylation and reaction time. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 509 (2019) 012070

Published
2021-12-17