The pandemic COVID-19 in DKI Jakarta: An economic and environmental impact model with a systems thinking approach
WHO has been assessing this COVID-19 outbreak as a global health emergency. The easy spread of this virus posing enormous health, economic, environmental, and social challenges to the entire human population. This paper aims to provide an understanding of the incidence of epidemics of a disease such as the COVID-19 pandemic which is currently a concern of people around the world with a system thinking approach using a system dynamics method. The number cases of COVID-19 in DKI Jakarta will continue to increase if intervention is not carried out with exponential growth behavior. The total cost of care and medication without intervention is 3.4 trillion rupiah. In other hand, economic loss arising from restricting activity policy reached 415 billion rupiah. Meanwhile, the environmental impact also caused in this case is increasing medical waste in the environment reaching 45,200 tons.
[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. 2020. Infografis Ekonomi Indonesia. Jakarta (ID): BPS. Agamuthu P, Barasarathi J. 2020. Clinical waste management under COVID-19 scenario in Malaysia. Waste Management dan Research. 29: 442-450.
Buder F, Hitzenbichler F, Ehrenstein B, Salzberger B. 2020. The outbreak covid in China. Internist (Berl). 61(8): 776-781.
Chen H, Qian W, Wen Q. 2020. The Impact of The COVID 19 Pandemic on Consumption: Learning from High Frequency Transaction Data [Internet]. [diunduh 2021 Mei 15]. Tersedia pada: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3568574.
Cheval S, Adamescu CM, Georgiadis T. 2020. Observed and potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment. International Journal of Environmental Research dan Public Health. 17: 1-25.
Chinazzi M, Davis JT, Ajelli M, Gioannini C, Litvinova M, Merler S, Piontti AP, Mu K, Rossi L, Sun K, et al. 2020. The effect of travel restriction on the spread of the 2019 novel corona virus (COVID-19) outbreak. Science. 368: 395-400.
Cucinotta D, Vanelli M. 2020. WHO declares COVID-19 a pandemic. Acta Biomedica. 91(6): 157-160. Dickens BL, Koo JR, Wilder-Smith A, Cook AR. 2020. Institutional, not home-based, isolation could contain the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet. 395: 1541-1542.
Duan H, Wang S, Yang C. 2020. Coronavirus: Limit shortterm economic damage. Nature. 578: 515-515. doi: https:// doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00522-6.
Fan YV, Jiang P, Hemzal M. 2021. An update of COVID-19 influence on waste management. Science of the Total Environment. 754: 1-6.
Fang H, Wang L, Yang Y. 2020. Human mobility restrictions and the spread of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China. Journal of Public Economics. 191: 104272.
Kementerian Kesehatan. 2020. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Nomor 9 Tahun 2020 tentang Pedoman Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar Dalam Rangka Percepatan Penanganan Corona Virus Disease 2019. Jakarta (ID): Kementerian Kesehatan.
Kraemer MUG, Chia-Hung Y, Bernardo G, Chieh-Hsi W, Brennan K, David MP, Louis P, Nuno RF, Ruoran L, William PH, John SB, Maylis L, Alessandro V, Huaiyu T, Christopher D, Oliver GP, Samuel VS. 2020. The effect of human mobility and control measure on the Covid19 epidemic in China. Science. 368: 493-497.
Kulkarni BN, Aantharama V. 2020. Repercussions of COVID-19 pandemic on municipal solid waste management: Challenges and opportunities. Science of the Total Environment. 743: 1-33.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).