MANGROVE MONITORING USING NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI): CASE STUDY IN NORTH HALMAHERA, INDONESIA

  • Yerik Afrianto Singgalen Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jakarta http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1657-5947
  • Candra Gudiato Satya Wacana Christian University
  • Sri Yulianto Joko Prasetyo Satya Wacana Christian University
  • Charitas Fibriani Satya Wacana Christian University
Keywords: ecotourism, livelihood, mangrove, NDVI

Abstract

Community-based ecotourism is an appropriate approach which is effectively preserved mangrove sustainability. As an effort to identify the priority areas of mangrove development, mangrove density levels need to be analyzed. The distribution of mangroves with the lowest average density value needs to be prioritized as a preservation and conservation strategy through community-based ecotourism concept. This article aims to identify the distribution of mangroves using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) model in North Halmahera Regency, Indonesia. Also, discuss the sustainable livelihoods' perspective. This study adopted a mixed-method. Data processing is divided into two stages: first stage, mapping the distribution of mangroves based on density levels; second stage, triangulation. Landsat 8 operational land imager (OLI) in 2013 and 2021 were used as primary data to get the NDVI value, and categorized mangrove density level in Pilawang Cape, Kumo Island, Kakara Island, Maiti Island, and Tagalaya Island. The findings show that Pilawang Cape has the lowest NDVI value. The average NDVI value in 2021 is 0.22 which can be categorized as a rare mangrove forest according to the mangrove standard damage criteria. Thus, Mangrove area in Pilawang Cape needs to be prioritized as a preservation and conservation strategy through community-based ecotourism concept.

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Akbar, N., B. Abdurrachman, & T. Irmalita. 2015. Struktur komunitas ekosistem mangrove di Kawasan Pesisir Sidangoli Kabupaten Halmahera Barat, Maluku Utara. Depik, 4(3): 132–143. https://doi.org/10.13170/depik.4.3.3052

Akbar, N., A. Ibrahim, I. Haji, I. Tahir, F. Ismail, M. Ahmad, & R. Kotta. 2018. Struktur komunitas mangrove di Desa Tewe, Kecamatan Jailolo Selatan, Kabupaten Halmahera Barat Provinsi Maluku Utara. J. Enggano, 3(1): 81–97. https://doi.org/10.31186/jenggano.3.1.81-97

Akbar, N., I. Marus, I. Haji, S. Abdullah, S. Umalekhoa, F.S. Ibrahim, M. Ahmad, A. Ibrahim, A. Kahar, & I. Tahir. 2017. Struktur komunitas hutan mangrove di Teluk Dodinga, Kabupaten Halmahera Barat Provinsi Maluku Utara. J. Enggano, 2(1): 101–14. https://doi.org/10.31186/jenggano.2.1.78-89

Amal, A.M. 2006. Kepulauan rempah-rempah : Perjalanan sejarah Maluku Utara 1250-1950. Gramedia, 10-14 pp.

Analuddin, K., A. Septiana, Nasaruddin, Y. Sabilu, & S. Sharma. 2019. Mangrove fruit bioprospecting: nutritional and antioxidant potential as a food source for coastal communities in the Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. International J. of Fruit Science, 19(4): 423–436. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2018.1555507

Arjasakusuma, S., Y. Yamaguchi, T. Nakaji, Y. Kosugi, S.A. Shamsuddin, & M. Lion. 2018. Assessment of values and trends in coarse spatial resolution NDVI datasets in Southeast Asia landscapes. European J. of Remote Sensing, 51(1): 863–877. https://doi.org/10.1080/22797254.2018.1496799

Arnanto, A. 2015. Pemanfaatan transformasi Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Citra Landsat TM untuk zonasi vegetasi di lereng merapi bagian selatan. Geomedia, 11(2): 155–170. https://doi.org/10.21831/gm.v11i2.3448

Beall, J.M., B.B. Boley, A.C. Landon, & K.M. Woosnam. 2020. What drives ecotourism: environmental values or symbolic conspicuous consumption?. J. of Sustainable Tourism, 0(0): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1825458

Bennett, N.J., E.M. Finkbeiner, N.C. Ban, D. Belhabib, S.D. Jupiter, J.N. Kittinger, S. Mangubhai, J. Scholtens, D. Gill, & P. Christie. 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic, small-scale fisheries and coastal fishing communities. Coastal Management, 48(4): 336–347. https://doi.org/10.1080/08920753.2020.1766937

Bergman, I. & P.H. Ramqvist. 2017. Farmer-fishermen: interior lake fishing and inter-cultural and intra-cultural relations among coastal and interior Sámi communities in Northern Sweden. Acta Borealia, 34(2): 134–158. https://doi.org/10.1080/08003831.2017.1390662

Bhavsar, D., A. Kumar, & A. Roy. 2017. Applicability of NDVI temporal database for Western Himalaya forest mapping using Fuzzy-Based PCM classifier. European J. of Remote Sensing, 50(1): 614–625. https://doi.org/10.1080/22797254.2017.1379363

Buisson, E., P. Bravet, J. Mieusset, N. Baillot, C. Dubreucq, L. Sadonès, J. Chenot, & L. Brun. 2014. Plant communities of a coastal lagoon Foredune: definition of the reference and restoration after compaction. Acta Botanica Gallica, 161(3): 277–286. https://doi.org/10.1080/12538078.2014.919875

Bulmer, R.H., M. Lewis, E.O’Donnell, & C.J. Lundquist. 2017. Assessing mangrove clearance methods to minimize adverse impacts and maximize the potential to achieve restoration objectives. New Zealand J. of Marine and Freshwater Research, 51(1): 110–126. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.2016.1260605

Büscher, B., R.V.D. Bremer, R. Fletcher, & S. Koot. 2017. Authenticity and the contradictions of the ‘ecotourism script’: global marketing and local politics in Ghana. Critical Arts, 31(4): 37–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/02560046.2017.1386697

Carrasco-Benavides, M., M. Mora, G. Maldonado, J. Olguín-Cáceres, E.V. Bennewitz, S. Ortega-Farías, J. Gajardo, & S. Fuentes. 2016. Assessment of an automated digital method to estimate Leaf Area Index (LAI) in cherry trees. New Zealand J. of Crop and Horticultural Science, 44(4): 247–261. https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2016.1207670

Chai-Arayalert, S. 2020. Smart application of learning ecotourism for young eco-tourists. Cogent Social Sciences, 6(1): 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2020.1772558

Cheung, L.T.O. & C.Y. Jim. 2013. Ecotourism service preference and management in Hong Kong. International J. of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 20(2): 182–194. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2013.775192

Dalengkade, M.N. 2020a. Fluktuasi temporal kelembaban udara di dalam dan luar ekosistem mangrove. BAREKENG: J. Ilmu Matematika dan Terapan, 14(2): 159–166. https://doi.org/10.30598/barekengvol14iss2pp159-166

Dalengkade, M.N. 2020b. Profile 24 jam kuat penerangan, suhu udara, kelembaban udara di luar dan di dalam hutan mangrove. BAREKENG: J. Ilmu Matematika dan Terapan, 14(1): 47–57. https://doi.org/10.30598/barekengvol14iss1pp047058

Datta, D. & S. Deb. 2012. Analysis of coastal land use/land cover changes in the Indian sunderbans using remotely sensed data. Geo-Spatial Information Science, 15(4): 241–250. https://doi.org/10.1080/10095020.2012.714104

Diamantis, D. 2018. Stakeholder ecotourism management: exchanges, coordination’s and adaptations. J. of Ecotourism, 17(3): 203–205. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2018.1502122

Duggan, I.C. & M.A. White. 2010. Consequences of human-mediated marine intrusions on the zooplankton community of a temperate coastal lagoon. New Zealand J. of Marine and Freshwater Research, 44(1): 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288331003641661

Ferse, S.C.A., L. Knittweis, G. Krause, A. Maddusila, & M. Glaser. 2012. Livelihoods of ornamental coral fishermen in South Sulawesi/ Indonesia: implications for management. Coastal Management, 40(5): 25–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/08920753.2012.694801

Fletcher, R. 2019. Ecotourism after nature: anthropocene tourism as a new capitalist ‘fix’. J. of Sustainable Tourism, 27(4): 22–35. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2018.1471084

Fraser, C., P. Bernatchez, & S. Dugas. 2017. Development of a GIS coastal land-use planning tool for coastal erosion adaptation based on the exposure of buildings and infrastructure to coastal erosion, Québec, Canada. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 8(2): 11–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/19475705.2017.1294114

Glenn, D.M. & A. Tabb. 2019. Evaluation of five methods to measure Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in apple and citrus. International J. of Fruit Science, 19(2): 191–210. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2018.1502720

Guha, S., H. Govil, A. Dey, & N. Gill. 2018. Analytical study of land surface temperature with NDVI and NDBI using Landsat 8 OLI and TIRS data in Florence and Naples City, Italy. European J. of Remote Sensing, 51(1): 67–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/22797254.2018.1474494

Handoko, W. & M.A. Mujabuddawat. 2017. Situs kampung tua Kao: identitas asal usul dan jejak peradaban islam di wilayah pedalaman Halmahera Utara. J. Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 2(2): 150-156. https://doi.org/10.24832/jpnk.v2i2.653

Hasan, S., R.H. Serosero, & S. Abubakar. 2020. Distribusi vertikal dan komposisi moluska pada ekosistem hutan di gugusan pulau-pulau Sidangoli Kabupaten Halmahera Barat Provinsi Maluku Utara. J. Agribisnis Perikanan, 13(1): 29–37. https://doi.org/10.29239/j.agrikan.13.2.

Haya, N., N.P. Zamani, & D. Soedharma. 2015. Analisis struktur ekosistem mangrove di Desa Kukupang Kecamatan Kepulawan Joronga. Teknologi Perikanan dan Kelautan, 6(1): 79–89. https://doi.org/10.24319/jtpk.6.79-89

Hossain, M.S., A.K. Gain, & K.G. Rogers. 2020. Sustainable coastal social-ecological systems: how do we define ‘coastal’? International J. of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 27(7): 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2020.1789775

Islam, M.M., H. Borgqvist, & L. Kumar. 2019. Monitoring mangrove forest landcover changes in the coastline of Bangladesh from 1976 to 2015. Geocarto International, 34(13): 1458–1476. https://doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2018.1489423

Joel, E.L. & V.B. Bhimba. 2013. Evaluation of secondary metabolites from mangrove associated fungi Meyerozyma guilliermondii. Alexandria J. of Medicine, 49(3): 189–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajme.2013.04.003

Ministry of Environment and Forestry. 2004. Kriteria Baku dan Pedoman dan Penentuan Kerusakan Mangrove tahun 2004. KLHK. Jakarta. 201 p. http://perpustakaan.menlhk.go.id/pustaka/home/index.php?page=ebook&code=kp&view=yes&id=58

Kganyago, M., P. Mhangara, T. Alexandridis, G. Laneve, G. Ovakoglou, & N. Mashiyi. 2020. Validation of sentinel-2 Leaf Area Index (LAI) product derived from snap toolbox and its comparison with global LAI products in an African semi-arid agricultural landscape. Remote Sensing Letters, 11(10): 883–892. https://doi.org/10.1080/2150704X.2020.1767823

King, H., J.C. García-Rosell, & S. Noakes. 2020. Promoting children-nature relations through play-based learning in ecotourism sites. J. of Teaching in Travel and Tourism, 20(3): 190–201. https://doi.org/10.1080/15313220.2020.1797612

Kondo, L.R., Sunarno, O.F.W. Tutupary, B.R. Toisutta, & B. Sadjab. 2018. Konservasi burung Gosong Maluku (Eulipoa wallacei) berbasis masyarakat di Desa Simau, Kecamatan Galela. J. Hutan Pulau-Pulau Kecil, 2(2): 195–200. https://doi.org/10.30598/jhppk.2018.2.2.195

Kushnir, V., F. Kogan, G. Korotaev, & A. Powell. 2010. Predicting natural disasters in the coastal zone based on links between land and marine ecosystems. Geomatics: Natural Hazards and Risk, 1(3): 185–197. https://doi.org/10.1080/19475705.2010.498146

Li, J.L., X. Sun, L. Chen, & L.D. Guo. 2016. Community structure of Endophytic fungi of four mangrove species in Southern China. Mycology, 7(4): 180–190. https://doi.org/10.1080/21501203.2016.1258439

Li, T., F. Liu, & G. N. Soutar. 2020. Experiences and value perceptions of an ecotourism trip–an empirical study of outbound Chinese tourists. Tourism Recreation Research, 0(0): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2020.1804736

Macedo, J.A., P. Alves, Â. Lomba, J. Vicente, R. Henriques, H. Granja, & J. Honrado. 2010. On the interest of plant functional classifications to study community—level effects of increased disturbance on Coastal Dune vegetation. J. Acta Botanica Gallica, 157(2): 305–315. https://doi.org/10.1080/12538078.2010.10516208

Marois, D.E. & W.J. Mitsch. 2015. Coastal protection from tsunamis and cyclones provided by mangrove wetlands - a review. International J. of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services and Management, 11(1): 71–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2014.997292

Mazibuko, S. 2013. Understanding underdevelopment through the sustainable livelihoods approach. J. Community Development, 44(2): 173–187. https://doi.org/10.1080/15575330.2012.683798

McElduff, L., D. Peel, H. Ritchie, & M. G. Lloyd. 2016. The octagon values model: community resilience and coastal regeneration. J. Urban, Planning and Transport Research, 4(1): 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/21650020.2015.1124735

Mendes, S., J. Martins, & T. Mouga. 2019. Ecotourism based on the observation of sea turtles–a sustainable solution for the touristic promotion of São Tomé and Príncipe. J. Cogent Social Sciences, 5(1): 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2019.1696001

Mo, X.S.L., Z. Lin, S. Wang, & S. Hu. 2015. Trends in land surface evapotranspiration accros China with remotely sensed NDVI and climatological data for 1981-2010. J. J. Hydrological Sciences, 60(12): 2163–2177. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2014.950579

Mondino, E. & T. Beery. 2019. Ecotourism as a learning tool for sustainable development. The case of Monviso transboundary biosphere reserve, Italy. J. of Ecotourism, 18(2): 107–121. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2018.1462371

Pedersen, L. 2016. Religious pluralism in Indonesia. Asia Pacific J. of Anthropology, 17(5): 387–398. https://doi.org/10.1080/14442213.2016.1218534

Pellis, A. 2019. Reality effects of conflict avoidance in rewilding and ecotourism practices–the case of Western Iberia. J. of Ecotourism, 18(4): 316–331. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2019.1579824

Phuong, L.T.H., G.R. Biesbroek, L.T.H. Sen, & A.E.J. Wals. 2018. Understanding smallholder farmers’ capacity to respond to climate change in a coastal community in central Vietnam. Climate and Development, 10(8): 701–716. https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2017.1411240

Qiu, B., W. Li, M. Zhong, Z. Tang, & C. Chen. 2014. Spatiotemporal analysis of vegetation variability and its relationship with climate change in China. Geo-Spatial Information Science, 17(3): 170–180. https://doi.org/10.1080/10095020.2014.959095

Rogers, G.M. & A. Monks. 2016. Restoring lost ecological function: ecological surrogates facilitate maintenance of coastal Turf communities. New Zealand J. of Botany, 54(4): 393–411. https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2016.1216866

Serosero, R.H., S. Abubakar, & S. Hasan. 2009. Distribution and community structure of mangrove in Donrotu, Guratu and Manomadehe Island, West Halmahera District, North Maluku. J. Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 12(1): 151–166. https://doi.org/10.29244/jitkt.v12i1.26929

Singgalen, Y.A. 2020. Mangrove forest utilization for sustainable livelihood through community-based ecotourism in Kao Village of North Halmahera District. J. Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 26(2): 155-168. https://doi.org/10.7226/JTFM.26.2.155

Singgalen, Y.A., G. Sasongko, & G.P. Wiloso. 2017. Institutional analysis of community-based tourism’s sustainability (Case of KASBI community in North Halmahera). Sodality 6(3): 198–200. https://doi.org/10.22500/sodality.v6i3.20744

Singgalen, Y.A., G. Sasongko, & G.P. Wiloso. 2018. Tourism destination in remote area : problems and challenges of tourism development in North Halmahera as remote and border areas of Indonesia-Philippines. J. of Indonesian Tourism and Development Studies, 6(3): 175–86. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.jitode.2018.006.03.04

Singgalen, Y.A., G. Sasongko, & G.P. Wiloso. 2019a. Community participation in festival and digital tourism campaign (Case of North Halmahera District, Indonesia). J. of Indonesian Tourism and Development Studies, 7(1): 21–31. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.jitode.2019.007.01.04

Singgalen, Y.A., G. Sasongko, & G.P. Wiloso. 2019b. Community participation in regional tourism development : a case study in North Halmahera regency - Indonesia. Insight Into Regional Development, 1(4): 318–33. https://doi.org/10.9770/ird.2019

Singgalen, Y.A., G. Sasongko, & G.P. Wiloso. 2019c. Ritual capital for rural livelihood and sustainable tourism development in Indonesia. J. of Tropical Forest Management, 25(2): 115–25. https://doi.org/10.7226/jtfm.25.2.115

Singgalen, Y.A., G. Sasongko, & G.P. Wiloso. 2019d. Social capital and livelihood diversification : tourism entrepreneurship in a remote area of North Halmahera, Indonesia. KAWISTARA, 9(3): 285–98. https://doi.org/10.22146/kawistara.34627

Singgalen, Y.A. & S.M. Simange. 2018. Livelihood and Rural Tourism Development in Coastal Area North Maluku Province Indonesia. International Conference on Frontier of Science and Society (ICFSS-2017), Makasar, Indonesia, 3–5 November 2017, 1–10 pp. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/156/1/012010

Tahir, I., R.E. Paembonan, Z.A. Harahap, N. Akbar, & E.S. Wibowo. 2017. Sebaran kondisi ekosistem hutan mangrove di kawasan Teluk Jailolo, Kabupaten Halmahera Barat, Provinsi Maluku Utara. J. Enggano, 2(2): 143–155. https://doi.org/10.31186/jenggano.2.2.143-155

Tajima, Y., J.P. Lapidez, J. Camelo, M. Saito, Y. Matsuba, T. Shimozono, D. Bautista, M. Turiano, & E.Cruz. 2017. Post-disaster survey of storm surge and waves along the coast of Batanes, the Philippines, caused by super typhoon Meranti/Ferdie. J. Coastal Engineering, 59(1): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0578563417500097

Tao, H., M. Li, M. Wang, & G. Lü. 2019. Genetic algorithm-based method for forest type classification using multi-temporal NDVI from Landsat TM imagery. Annals of GIS, 25(1): 33–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/19475683.2018.1552621

Udo, K., Y. Takeda, & H. Tanaka. 2016. Coastal morphology change before and after 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake tsunami at Rikuzen-Takata Coast. J. Coastal Engineering, 58(4): 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0578563416400167

Verbyla, D. & T.A. Kurkowski. 2019. NDVI–climate relationships in high-latitude mountains of Alaska and Yukon territory. J. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 51(1): 397–411. https://doi.org/10.1080/15230430.2019.1650542

Wei, C., J. Chen, J. M. Chen, J.C. Yu, Ch. P. Cheng, Y.J. Lai, P.N. Chiang, C.Y. Hong, M.J. Tsai, & Y.N. Wang. 2020. Evaluating relationships of standing stock, LAI and NDVI at a subtropical reforestation site in Southern Taiwan using field and satellite Data. J. of Forest Research, 25(4): 250–259. https://doi.org/10.1080/13416979.2020.1783752

Wicaksono, P. & M. Hafizt. 2013. Mapping seagrass from space: addressing the complexity of seagrass LAI mapping. European J. of Remote Sensing, 46(1): 18–39. https://doi.org/10.5721/EuJRS20134602

Xu, Z., Y. Chen, X. Meng, F. Wang, & Z. Zheng. 2016. Phytoplankton community diversity is influenced by environmental factors in the coastal East China sea. European J. of Phycology, 51(1): 107–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/09670262.2015.1107138

Yotsumoto, Y. 2012. Ecotour providers in the Kyushu region: The characteristics of Japanese ecotourism and its relationship with global warming. J. Contemporary Japan, 24(2): 243–265. https://doi.org/10.1515/cj-2012-0011

Zhai, K., X. Wu, Y. Qin, & P. Du. 2015. Comparison of surface water extraction performances of different classic water indices using OLI and TM imageries in different situations. J. Geo-Spatial Information Science, 18(1): 32–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/10095020.2015.1017911

Zhu, J. W. & X. D. Zeng. 2016. Influences of the interannual variability of vegetation LAI on surface temperature. J. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 9(4): 292–297. https://doi.org/10.1080/16742834.2016.1189800

Published
2021-08-31
How to Cite
Singgalen, Y. A., Gudiato, C., Prasetyo, S. Y. J., & Fibriani, C. (2021). MANGROVE MONITORING USING NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI): CASE STUDY IN NORTH HALMAHERA, INDONESIA. Jurnal Ilmu Dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 13(2), 219-239. https://doi.org/10.29244/jitkt.v13i2.34771