Contestation of Spatial Utilization in Komodo National Park: Access and Exclusion Perspectives

  • Nur Hannah Muthohharoh Departemen Sains Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Masyarakat
  • Endriatmo Soetarto Departemen Sains Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia, Institut Pertanian Bogor
  • Soeryo Adiwibowo Departemen Sains Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia, Institut Pertanian Bogor
Keywords: akses, konservasi kehati, eksklusi, kekuasaan, Taman Nasional Komodo

Abstract

The idea of biodiversity conservation emerged to overcome the ecological crisis. However, its implementation has created various social impacts such as social alienation, conflict, and poverty. There is a political relationship between humans and nature, one of which is about access to resources or space. This study aims to analyze who can get access or exclusion, and through what mechanisms they access or exclude space in Komodo National Park (KNP). Qualitative methods with the case study strategy are applied. The results are as follows: Firstly, due to shifting conservation management from the ecological-based conservation (EBC) perspective to the market-based conservation (MBC), different actors emerge. Secondly, as an implication, a new bundle of power with different actors emerged in each type of conservation period. During the EBC period, the unbalanced power occurs between local people on the one side and the KNP office and conservation NGO on the other side. Juridical power becomes the source of the power of the latter. Meanwhile, during the MBC period, market and juridical power are the sources of power. Thirdly, both the EBC and the MBC period lead the way to the exclusion of the local people.

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Published
2021-10-02
Section
Articles