Milk Lipid and Protein Profiles of Abkhazian and Kackar Goats

H. Iskender, O. Kaynar, A. Hayirli, Y. Camadan


Fat and protein profiles of milk of Abkhazian and Kackar goats, Caucasian breeds, were compared in this study. The milk samples (n= 60) from 60 Abkhazian and Kackar goats were subjected to assessments of lipid profile using the high performance thin layer chromatography and protein profile using the sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The milk lipid and protein contents as well as their fractions were compared using student t-test. Total lipid content was 4.23±0.022 g/dl and 3.44±0.026 g/dl for Abkhazian and Kackar goat milk (P<0.0001). Milk triacylglycerol, free fatty acid and diacylglycerol fractions were different (P<0.05), but the cholesterol fraction was similar. Total protein content was 3.94 g/dl and 3.75 g/dl for Abkhazian and Kackar goat milk (P<0.007). The milk fat globule membrane protein mucine1 and xhantine oxidase, α-lactalbumin, α-casein, and κ-casein fractions were different (P<0.05). In conclusion, milk lipid and protein profile differs between Abkhazian and Kackar goats despite living in the same ecosystem. Differences in milk lipid and protein profile could be pertinent to human nutrition and health.


Atmani, D., M. Benboubetra, & R. Harrison. 2004. Goat’s milk xanthine oxidoreductase is grossly deficient in molybdenum. J. Dairy. Res. 71: 7-13.

Bernard, L., K. J. Shingfield, J. Rouel, A. Ferlay, & Y. Chilliard. 2009. Effect of plant oils in the diet on performance and milk fatty acid composition in goats fed diets based on grass hay or maize silage. Br. J. Nutr. 101: 213-224.

Casado, B., M. Affolter, & M. Kussmann. 2009. OMICS rooted studies of milk proteins, oligosaccharides and lipids. J. Proteomics. 73: 196-208.

Ceballos, L. S., E. R. Morales, G. T. Adarve, J. D. Castro, L. P. Martinez, & M. R. Sanz-Sampelayo. 2009. Composition of goat and cow milk produced under similar conditions and analyzed by identical methodology. J. Food. Comp. Anal. 22: 322-329.

Costa, W. K., E. L. Souza, E. M. Beltrão Filho, G. K. Vasconcelos, T. Santi Gadelha, C. A. de Almeida Gadelha, O. L. Franco, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, & M. Magnani. 2014. Comparative protein composition analysis of goat milk produced by the Alpine and Saanen breeds in northeastern Brazil and related antibacterial activities. Plos. One. 9: 1-8.

Domagala, J. 2009. Instrumental texture, syneresis and microstructure of yoghurts prepared from goat, cow and sheep milk. Int. J. Food. Prod. 12: 605-615.

Drewnowski, A. & V. Fulgoni III. 2008. Nutrient profiling of foods: creating a nutrient rich food index. Nutr. Rev. 66: 23-39.

Fossati, P. & L. Prencipe. 1982. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin. Chem. 28: 2077-2080.

Greppi, G. F., P. Roncada, & R. Fortin. 2008. Protein Components of Goat’s Milk. In: G Pulina, & A. Cannas (Eds.) Dairy Goats Feeding And Nutrition, 2 ed. Bologna, CAB International p. 71-94.

Gupta, C., D. Prakash, A. P. Garg, & S. Gupta. 2012. Whey Proteins: A novel source of Bioceuticals. Mid. East J. Sci. Res. 12: 365–375.

Hama, J. S., S. G. Leea, S. G. Jeonga, M. H. Oha, D. H. Kima, & Y. W. Park. 2010. Characteristics of Korean-Saanen goat milk caseins and somatic cell counts in comparison with Holstein cow milk counterparts, Small Rumin. Res. 93: 202–205.

Hara, A. & N. S. Radin. 1978. Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent. Anal. Biochem. 90: 420-426.

Heid, H. W., S. Winter, G. Bruder, T. W. Keenan, & E. D. Jarasch. 1983. Butyrophilin, an apical plasma membrane-associated glycoprotein characteristic of lactating mammary glands of diverse species. BBB. Biomembranes. 728: 228-238.

Hochwallner, H., U. Schulmeister, I. Swoboda, S. Spitzauer, & R. Valenta. 2014. Cow’s milk allergy: From allergens to new forms of diagnosis, therapy and prevention. Methods. 66: 22–33.

Hvarregaard, J., M. H. Andersen., L. Berglund, J. T. Rasmussen, & T. E. Petersen. 1996. Characterization of glycoprotein PAS-6/7 from membranes of bovine milk fat globules. Eur. J. Biochem. 240: 628-636.

Kaynar, O., M. Ileriturk, & A. Hayirli. 2013. Evaluation of Computational modifications in HTLC with gel analysis software and flatbed scanner for lipid separation. Journal of Planar Chromatography Modern TLC. 26: 202-208.

Kücükcetin, A., M. Demir, A. Ascı, & E. M. Comak. 2011. Graininess and roughness of stirred yoghurt made with goat’s, cow’s or a mixture of goat’s and cow’s milk. Small Rumin. Res. 96: 173-177.

Laemmli, U. K. 1970. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 227: 680-885.

Lowry, O. H., N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, & R. J. Randall. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem.193: 265-275.

Markiewicz-Kęszycka, M., G. Czyżak-Runowska, P. Lipińska, & J. Wójtowski. 2013. Fatty acid profıle of milk - A review. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy 57: 135-139.

Mather, I. H. 2000. A review and proposed nomenclature for major proteins of the milk-fat globule membrane. J. Dairy. Sci. 83: 203-247.

Park, Y. W., M. Juarez, M. Ramos, & G. F. W. Haenlein. 2007. Physico-chemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small Rumin. Res. 68: 88-113.

Potocnik, K., V. Gantner, K. Kuterovac, & A. Cividini. 2011. Mare’s milk composition and protein fraction in comparison with different milk species. Mljekarstvo. 61: 107-113.

Raynal-Ljutovac, K., G. Lagriffoul, P. Paccard, I. Guillet, & Y. Chilliard. 2008. Composition of goat and sheep milk products: An update. Small Rumin. Res. 79: 57-72.

Renner, E., G. Schaafsma, & K. J. Scott. 1989. Micronutrients in milk. In: E Renner E. (Ed.): Micronutrients in Milk and Milk Based Products, Elsevier Applied Science, New York: p. 1-70

Roncada, P., C. Piras, A. Soggiu, R. Turk, A. Urbani, & L. Bonizzi. 2012. Farm animal milk proteomics. J. Proteomics. 75: 4259-4274

Salem, S. A., E. I. El Agamy, F. A. Salama, & N. H. Abo Soliman. 2009. Isolatıon, Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Goat Milk Casein and Its Fractions. Trop. Subtrop. Agroecosyst. 11: 29-35.

SAS. 2002. User’s Guide. Statistics, Version 9th. Statistical Analysis System. SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

Silanikove, N., G. Leitner, U. Merin, & C. G. Prosser. 2010. Recent advances in exploiting goat’s milk: quality, safety and production aspects. Small Rumin. Res. 89: 110-124.

Yangilar, F. 2013. As a potentially functional food: Goats’ milk and products. J. Food. Nutr. Res. 4: 68-81.

Zamora, A., B. Guamis, & A. J. Trujillo. 2009. Protein composition of caprine milk fat globule membrane. Small Rumin. Res. 82: 122-129.


H. Iskender (Primary Contact)
O. Kaynar
A. Hayirli
Y. Camadan
IskenderH., KaynarO., HayirliA., & CamadanY. (2018). Milk Lipid and Protein Profiles of Abkhazian and Kackar Goats. Tropical Animal Science Journal, 41(1), 60-66.

Article Details

List of Cited By :

Crossref logo