Inadequate feed intake and nutrient supply are associated with the suboptimal reproductive performance of Kacang goats reared using a traditional tethering system in the Pariaman region of Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to (i) identify reproductive problems in tethered female Kacang goats, (ii) assess crude nutrient and mineral composition of feed consumed by tethered goats, and (iii) evaluate the beneficial effects of mineral supplementation on reproductive performance of tethered female Kacang goats. A field survey was carried out in Pariaman City and the Padang Pariaman Regency to collect data on reproductive performance as well as blood mineral and hematological profiles of tethered female Kacang goats. Forage and feed samples were collected and analyzed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn) contents. Feed was formulated with supplemented complete minerals in either block form or mixed with feed. A total of 15 young female Kacang goats received feed without supplement (P0, n=5), or mineral supplement with feed (P1, n=5), or in a manually prepared block lick (P2, n=5). Parameters measured included body weight, number of pregnant goats, blood mineral concentrations, hematological parameters, total protein concentrations, and progesterone concentrations. Results of the field survey showed that the age of maturity of female Kacang goats reared under a tethering system ranged between 5 and 9 months and the first kidding occurred between 12 and 23 months. The suboptimal reproductive performance of female Kacang goats raised using a tethering system was closely related to the inadequate feed intake and nutritional deficiency. Supplementation with minerals is an effective method to enhance nutritional status and health to increase pregnancy rate of tethered female Kacang goats.
Amin, B.Y., R.S Dar, A. Ali1, J. A. Malla, & S. Shubeena. 2016. Role of micro-nutrients in bovine reproduction. Theriogenology Insight 6: 57-65. https://doi.org/10.5958/2277-3371.2016.00008.5
AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 18th ed. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., Arlington.
Barui A, S. Batabyal, S. Ghosh, D. Saha, S. Chattopadhyay. 2015. Plasma mineral profiles and hormonal activities of normal cycling and repeat breeding crossbred cows: A comparative study. Vet. World 8: 42-45. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2015.42-45
Dangi, C.B.S., M. Kaur, & M. Singh. 2011. Copper and zinc quotient in haemoglobinopathies. Biomed & Pharm. J. 4: 165-173. https://doi.org/10.13005/bpj/276
Godara, R.S., S. Naskar, B.C. Das, A.S. Godara, M.K. Ghosh, M. Mondal & S. A. Bhat. 2015. Effect of area specific mineral supplementation on biochemical profile in female Black Bengal goats. J. Anim. Res. 5:263-268. https://doi.org/10.5958/2277-940X.2015.00045.5
Feldman, B., J. Zink, & N. Jain. 2002. Schalm’s Veterinary Hemetology. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, Baltimore, New York, London, Buenos Aires, Hong Kong, Sidney, Tokyo.
Gasmi-Boubaker, A., C. Kayouli, A. Buldgen, A. Boukary, H. Ammar, & S. Lopez. 2006. Effect of feed block supply on the ruminal ecosystem of goats grazing shrub land in Tunisia. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 127: 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.06.010
Gouda, G., K. Sethy, R.K. Swain, S.K. Mishra, K. Behera, N.R. Debata, & B. Mishra. 2017. Effect of area specific mineral mixture and hormonal interventions on growth, blood chemistry and mineral status of the reproductive disorders cross bred cattle. Pharma. Innov. 6: 284-286 .
Jittapalapong, S., S. Saengow, N. Pinyopanuwat, W. Chimnoi, W. Khachaeram, & R.W. Stich. 2012. Gastrointestinal helminthic and protozoal infections of goats in Satun, Thailand. J. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 35:48-54
Khalil. 2016. Crude nutrient and mineral composition of Asystasia gangetica (L) as a predominant forage species for feeding of goats. Pakistan J. Nutr. 15:867-872. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2016.867.872
Khalil, W. Wati, F. Hidayat, & Evitayani. 2018. Physical properties and nutritive values of shell meal derived from different shellfish species and habitats. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 17: 116-125. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2018.116.125
Khalil, Reswati, Ferawati, Y.F. Kurnia, & F. Agustin. 2017. Studies on physical characteristics, mineral composition, and nutritive value of bone meal and bone char produced from inedible cow bones. Pak. J. Nutr. 16:426-434. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2017.426.434
Khalil, M. N. Lestari, P. Sardilla, & Hermon. 2015. The use of local mineral formulas as a feed block supplement for beef cattle fed on wild forages. Med. Pet. 38:34-41. https://doi.org/10.5398/medpet.2015.38.1.34
Khalil, B. Primasari, & S. Anwar. 2012. Studies on physical properties of Bukit Kamangs’ limestone as mineral source for laying hens. J. Indonesian Trop. Anim. Agric. 36:171-179. https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.36.3.171-179
Mude, S.W., S.P. Waghmare, S.G. Mode, P.G. Sukare, & S.A. Adlak. 2010. Effect of mineral supplementation on post-parturient diseases in pregnant goats. Vet. World 3:109-110.
National Research Council (NRC). 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids. The National Academies Press, Washington DC.
Niaz, F., K. Sethy, R.K. Swain, K. Behera, S.K. Mishra, D.K. Karna, & C. Mishra. 2017. Combined effect of concentrate and area specific mineral mixture supplementation on the performance of Ganjam goat in its native tract. Pharma Innov. 6: 320-323.
Pandey, V.K., M.K. Gendley, S.P. Tiwari, & S. Prusty. 2017. Effect of supplementation of area specific mineral mixture on serum mineral status of cattle in different agro-climatic zones of Chhattisgarh state. J. Anim. Res. 7: 827-835. https://doi.org/10.5958/2277-940X.2017.00127.9
Patra, A.K., R. Puchala, G. Detweiler, L. J. Dawson, G. Animut, T. Sahlu, & A. L. Goetsch. 2008. Tethering meat goats grazing forage of high nutritive value and low to moderate mass. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 21: 1252-1261. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.60670
Qian, L.C., X.T. Zou, Z.R. Xu, & S. Xi. 2001. Effect of various levels of iron on the reproductive performance and biochemical parameters of gestation cow. Chinese J. Vet. Sci. 21: 526-528.
Sales, J.N.S., R.V.V. Pereira, R.C. Bicalho, & P.S. Baruselli. 2011. Effect of injectable copper, selenium, zinc and manganese on the pregnancy rate of crossbred heifers (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) synchronized for timed embryo transfer. Livest. Sci. 142: 59-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.06.014
Sahoo, J.K., S.K. Das, K. Sethy, S. K. Mishra, R.K. Swain, P.C. Mishra, & D. Satapathy. 2016. Effect of supplementation of mineral mixture and bypass fat on performance of crossbred cattle. J. Anim. Res. 6:611-618. https://doi.org/10.5958/2277-940X.2016.00071.1
Satapathy, D., S.K. Mishra, R.K. Swain, K. Sethy, & G.R Sahoo. 2016. Effect of supplementation of area specific mineral mixture on performance of crossbred cows with reproductive disorders in Kakatpur Block. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 33: 279-284. https://doi.org/10.5958/2231-6744.2016.00049.9
Soldá, N.M, P. Glombowsky, G. Campigotto, & N. B. Bottari. 2017. Injectable mineral supplementation to transition period dairy cows and its effects on animal health. Comp. Clin. Patho. 26:335-342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-016-2378-y
Steel. R.G.D., J.H. Torrie, & J.H. Dicky. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometritrical Approach. 3rd Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, USA.
Suttle, N.F. 2010. Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. 4th Ed. Moredun Foundation. Pentland Science Park, Midlothian, UK. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845934729.0000
Tiwari, R.K., V.K. Sachan, N.K. Singh, P. Nautiyal, G. Papnai, & J. P. Gupta. 2014. Effect of supplementing mineral mixture daily on body weight gain in male goats. J. Krishi Vigyan. 3: 24-26. https://doi.org/10.5958/2349-4433.2014.01243.4
Ullah, N., M. Anwar, S. M. H. Andrabi, M. S. Ansari, S. Murtaza, Q. Ali, & M. Asif. 2010. Effect of mineral supplementation on post partum ovarian activity in Nili-Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Pakistan J. Zool. 43:195-200.
Wang, H, Z. Liu, M. Huang, S. Wang, D. Cui, S. Dong, S. Li, Z. Qi, & Y. Liu. 2016. Effects of long-term mineral block supplementation on antioxidants, immunity, and health of Tibetan sheep. Biol. Trace. Elem. Res. 172:326-335. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-015-0593-z
Yatoo, M.I., A. Saxena, P.M. Deepa, B.P. Habeab, S. Devi, R.S. Jatav, & U. Dimri. 2013. Role of trace elements in animals: a review. Vet. World 6: 963-967. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2013.963-967
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors submitting manuscripts should understand and agree that copyright of manuscripts of the article shall be assigned/transferred to Tropical Animal Science Journal. The statement to release the copyright to Tropical Animal Science Journal is stated in Form A. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA) where Authors and Readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.