Requirements of Energy and Protein for Arabic Chicken During Early Egg Production

Syafwan, Noferdiman


The objectives of this experiment were to calculate energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) requirements of Arabic chicken hens in the tropical climates during the early laying period by a choice feeding method. One hundred and thirty-eight of 22-week old Arabic chicken hens were allotted into 12 sheltered pens with 10-14 chicks each. The no free-choice group hens fed a standard diet conforming with the Hy-line Brown Commercial Management Guide, whilst the free-choice group hens fed with a standard diet, an energy-protein rich diet, an energy-rich diet, a protein-rich diet, and an energy-protein poor diet. Feed consumption, energy and protein consumptions, energy (kcal of ME/kg) and protein (g of CP/kg) dietary concentrations were recorded weekly, and egg production was recorded daily. All performance data were taken repeatedly during the first 28 weeks of egg production and were analyzed after summarizing weekly data into seven 28-d periods using the Mixed Procedure in SAS. The dietary treatments had no clear effect on feed and protein consumption but had a significant effect on energy consumption, energy and protein concentrations, and egg production. Energy consumption of the no free-choice group hens was lower than those in the free-choice group hens (1580 vs. 1718 kcal of ME/kg/hen; p<0.05). Energy and protein concentration in the diet of the no free-choice group hens were lower (p<0.01) than those in the free-choice group hens (2814 vs. 3050 kcal of ME/kg and 184 vs. 189 g of CP/kg, respectively). The no free-choice group produced less egg (p<0.01) than those of the free-choice group (56% vs. 61%). Arabic chicken hens consumed more feed from an energy-protein rich diet and an energy-rich diet and consumed less feed from a protein-rich diet and an energy-protein poor diet. Based on the choice feeding, ME and CP requirements for Arabic chicken hens during early egg production were higher than ME and CP contained in the control diet. An average hen day production was higher in the free choice group compared to the control diet group.


Adrizal, A., Y. Yusrizal, S. Fakhri, W. Haris, E. Ali, & R. C. Angel. 2011. Feeding native laying hens diets containing palm kernel meal with or without enzyme supplementations: 1. Feed conversion ratio and egg production. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 20:40-49.
Alwi, W., L. Agustina, & M. Z. Mide. 2019. Arabic chicken (Gallus turcicus) performance with different dietary energy-protein level. J. Sains dan Teknol. Peternak. 1:7-12.
Barrett, N. W., K. Rowland, C. J. Schmidt, S. J. Lamont, M. F. Rothschild, C. M. Ashwell, & M. E. Persia. 2019. Effects of acute and chronic heat stress on the performance, egg quality, body temperature, and blood gas parameters of laying hens. Poult. Sci. 98:6684-6692.
Castro, F. L. S., H. Y. Kim, Y. G. Hong, & W. K. Kim. 2019. The effect of total sulfur amino acid levels on growth performance, egg quality, and bone metabolism in laying hens subjected to high environmental temperature. Poult. Sci. 98:4982-4993.
Daghir, N. J. 2008. Replacement Pullet and Layer Feeding and Management in Hot Climates. p. 261-293 in Poultry Production in Hot Climates. Daghir, N.J., ed. 2nd ed. CAB International, Cromwell Press, Trowbridge.
Deng, W., X. F. Dong, J. M. Tong, & Q. Zhang. 2012. The probiotic Bacillus licheniformis ameliorates heat stress-induced impairment of egg production, gut morphology, and intestinal mucosal immunity in laying hens. Poult. Sci. 91:575-582.
Director General of Livestock and Animal Health. 2019. Livestock and Animal Health Statistics. Director General of Livestock and Animal Health Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Jakarta.
Fanatico, A. C., V. B. Brewer, C. M. Owens-Hanning, D. J. Donoghue, & A. M. Donoghue. 2013. Free-choice feeding of free-range meat chickens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 22: 750-758.
Hartawan, R., & N. L. P. I. Dharmayanti. 2016. The Meq gene molecular profile of Marek’s disease virus serotype 1 from Kampung and Arabic chicken farms in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. HAYATI J. Biosci. 23:160-167.
HyLine. 2011. Hy-line Brown Commercial Management Guide. Hy-Line, Australia.
Khawajaa, T., S. H. Khanb, N. Mukhtara, M. A. Ali, T. Ahmed, & A. Ghafar. 2012. Comparative study of growth performance, egg production, egg characteristics and haemato-biochemical parameters of Desi, Fayoumi and Rhode Island Red chicken. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 40: 273-283.
Khoddami, A., P. V. Chrystal, P. H. Selle, & S. Y. Liu. 2018. Dietary starch to lipid ratios influence growth performance, nutrient utilization and carcass traits in broiler chickens offered diets with different energy densities (C Óvilo, Ed.). PLoS One 13:e0205272.
Littell, R. C., P. R. Henry, & C. B. Ammerman. 1998. Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1216.
Molnar, A., C. Hamelin, E. Delezie, & Y. Nys. 2018. Sequential and choice feeding in laying hens: adapting nutrient supply to requirements during the egg formation cycle. Worlds. Poult. Sci. J. 74: 1-12.
Mulyadi, Y. 2013. The use of functional feed toward the performance of production and quality for Arabic chicken’s eggs. J. Ilmu Ternak. 13: 27-33.
NRC. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th rev.ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Shim, M. Y., E. Song, L. Billard, S. E. Aggrey, G. M. Pesti, & P. Sodsee. 2013. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers. Poult. Sci. 92:2687-2696.
Syafwan, S., R. P. Kwakkel, & M. W. A. Verstegen. 2011. Heat stress and feeding strategies in meat-type chickens. Worlds. Poult. Sci. J. 67:653-674.
Syafwan, S., G. J. D. Wermink, R. P. Kwakkel, & M. W. A. Verstegen. 2012. Dietary self-selection by broilers at normal and high temperature changes feed intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance. Poult. Sci. 91:537-549.
Walter, W. S., A. M. George, A. C. Elizabeth, & D. W. Russel. 2018. SAS for Mixed Models: Introduction and Basic Applications. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.


Syafwan (Primary Contact)
Syafwan, & Noferdiman. (2020). Requirements of Energy and Protein for Arabic Chicken During Early Egg Production. Tropical Animal Science Journal, 43(4), 339-346.

Article Details