Performance of Male Layer Fed Ration Containing Green Algae (Spirogyra jaoensis) Extract

A. R. Ramadhanti, N. O. J. Puspita, C. F. Refalta, H. Kurnianto, H. T. S. Saragih

Abstract

Some plant extracts containing natural antimicrobial compounds can be used as either feed supplements or alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP). A plant known as green algae (Spirogyra jaoensis), is one of the species of green algae group. This study aimed to determine the effect of feeding a diet containing S. jaoensis ethanolic extract on the performance of male layer. A complete randomized model was used for experimental design in various variables. This study was conducted with 240 male layer day-old chick (DOC) (31.0±1.25 g) divided into 5 treatment groups. Each group consisted of 48 birds, with 3 replicates and 16 birds for each replicate. Dietary treatments tested namely, Con: control (without S. jaoensis), EGA1: Con + S. jaoensis extract at 0.05%, EGA2: Con + S. jaoensis extract at 0.1%, EGA3: Con + S. jaoensis extract at 0.25%, and EGA4: Con + S. jaoensis extract at 0.5%. Three chickens from each triplicate were taken and decapitated on the neck and the surgery was performed for histological preparations. The variables observed were villi height, cryptic depth, villi/crypt ratio, goblet cell area of the small intestine, thymus organ weight, myofiber area, fasciculus area, muscle surface area of Pectoralis thoracicus muscle, and growth performance in 14-day-old chickens. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). If it was significant, a Tukey-test was performed with a significance level at p≤0.05. The results showed that small intestinal morphology, muscle morphology, and growth performance of the EGA4 chicken group increased significantly compared to controls (p≤0.05). This study concludes that the administration of S. jaoensis ethanolic extract improves morphology of the small intestine, morphometry of thymus organs, Pectoralis thoracicus muscle performance, and growth performance in male layer.

References

Anh, N. T. L., S. Kunhareang, & M. Duangjinda. 2015. Association of chicken growth hormones and insulin-like growth factor gene polymorphisms with growth performance and carcass traits in Thai broilers. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28:1686-1695. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0028
Bikle, D. D., C. Tahimic, W. Chang, Y. Wang,  A. Philippou, & E. R Barton. 2015. Role of IGF-I signaling in muscle bone interactions. Bone. 80:79-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2015.04.036
Birchenough, G. M. H., M. E. V. Johansson, J. K. Gustafsson, J. H. Bergström, & G. C. Hansson. 2015. New developments in goblet cell mucus secretion and function. Mucosal. Immunol. 8:712–719. https://doi.org/10.1038/mi.2015.32
Champa, P., N. Whangchai, S. Jaturonglumlert, N. Nakao, & K. Whangchai. 2015. Determination of phytochemical compound from Spirogyra sp. using ultrasonic assisted extraction. Int. J. GEOMATE. 11:2391-2396. https://doi.org/10.21660/2016.24.1277
Davis, R. V. N., S. J. Lamont, M. F. Rothschild, M. E. Persia, C. M. Ashwell, & C. J. Schmidt. 2015. Transcriptome analysis of post-hatch breast muscle in legacy and modern broiler chickens reveals enrichment of several regulators of Myogenic Growth. PLoS ONE. 10:1-17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122525
Ferlito, C. & H. Respatiadi. 2018. Policy Reform on Poultry Industry in Indonesia. (Discussion paper). Center for Indonesian Policy Studies. https://doi.org/10.35497/271878
Hartadi, H., S. Reksohadiprodjo, & A. D. Tillman. 2017. Tabel Komposisi Pakan Untuk Indonesia. Edisi ke-5. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.
Incharoen, T., K. Yamauchi, T. Erikawa, & H. Gotoh. 2010. Histology of intestinal villi and epithelial cells in chickens fed low-crude protein or low-crude fat diets. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 9:429-434. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2010.e82
Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2017. Farmakope Herbal Indonesia. Edisi ke-2. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, Jakarta. p.531.
Majumdar, S., S. Pathak, & D. Nandi. 2018. Thymus: the site for development of cellular immunity. Resonance. 23:197-217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12045-018-0605-3
Makram, A., A. Galal, M. M. Fathi, & A. H. El-Attar. 2010. Carcass characteristics and immunocompetence parameters of four commercial broiler strain chickens under summer season of Egypt. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 9:171-176. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2010.171.176
Nasrin, M., M. N. H. Siddiqi, M. A. Masum, & M. A. Wares. 2012. Gross and histologiscal studies of digestive tract of broiler during postnatal growth and development. J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ. 10:69-77. https://doi.org/10.3329/jbau.v10i1.12096
Panche, A. N., A. D. Diwan, & S. R. Chandra. 2016. Flavonoids: An overview. J. Nutr. Sci. 5:e47. https://doi.org/10.1017/jns.2016.41
Puertollano, M. A., E. Puertallano, G. A. Cienfuegos, & M. A. Pablo. 2011. Dietary antioxidants: Immunity and host defense. Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 11:1752-1766. https://doi.org/10.2174/156802611796235107
Saragih, H. T., A. A. K. Muhamad, A. Alfianto, F. Viniwidihastuti, L. F. Untari, I. Lesmana, H. Widyatmoko, & Z. Rohmah. 2019. Effects of Spirogyra jaoensis as a dietary supplement on growth, pectoralis muscle performance, and small intestine morphology of broiler chickens. Vet. World. 12:1233-1239. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2019.1233-1239
Saragih, H. T. S. S. G. & B. S. Daryono. 2012. Effect of high protein diet on body weight and Pectoralis thoracicus muscle performance on pelung and broiler chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). J. Anim. Prod. 14:199-204.
Svihus, B. 2014. Function of the digestive system. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 23:306-314. https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2014-00937
Xie, Y., W. Feng, F. Tang, X. Chen, & L. Ren. 2015. Antibacterial activities of flavonoids: structure-activity relationship and mechanism. Curr. Med. Chem. 22:132-149. https://doi.org/10.2174/0929867321666140916113443
Yazdi, F. F., G. Ghalamkari, M. Toghyani, M. Modaresi, & N. Landy. 2014. Efficiency of Tribulus terrestris as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on performance and immune responses in broiler chicks. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis. 4:1014-1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60774-X
Yi, Z., X. Li, W. Luo, Z. Xu, C. Ji, Y. Zhang, Q. Nie, D. Zhang, & X. Zhang. 2018. Feed conversion ratio, residual feed intake and cholecystokinin type A receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with feed intake and average daily gain in a Chinese local chicken population. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 9:1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-018-0261-1

Authors

A. R. Ramadhanti
N. O. J. Puspita
C. F. Refalta
H. Kurnianto
H. T. S. Saragih
saragihhendry@gmail.com (Primary Contact)
RamadhantiA. R., PuspitaN. O. J., RefaltaC. F., KurniantoH., & SaragihH. T. S. (2021). Performance of Male Layer Fed Ration Containing Green Algae (Spirogyra jaoensis) Extract. Tropical Animal Science Journal, 44(1), 100-107. https://doi.org/10.5398/tasj.2021.44.1.100

Article Details

List of Cited By :

Crossref logo